# What is a Bit?

**Bits**, short for binary digits, are the basic unit of information in computing. In binary code, a bit can only have one of two possible values: **0 or 1**. This binary system is used to store, process and transmit digital information in computers and other electronic devices.

One **bit** of information can **represent a simple binary decision**, such as "yes" or "no", "on" or "off", or "true" or "false". A series of bits can represent more complex data, such as numbers, letters, images, and sound. For example, an 8-bit sequence of binary digits can represent a number from 0 to 255 in decimal format.

Bits are used to **measure** **the amount of data** that can be transmitted or stored in a computer. For example, the amount of storage in a hard drive is often measured in gigabytes (GB), with 1 GB being equal to approximately 1 billion bits. The speed of a computer's network connection can be measured in bits per second (bps), with faster connections having a higher number of bits per second.

In modern computing, bits are used in a variety of ways, including to store program instructions, to transmit data between computers and devices, and to store and process large amounts of data.

## Simplified Example

A bit can be compared to a light switch. Just as a light switch can have two states, on or off, a bit can have two states, 0 or 1. Just as a light switch can control a light, a bit can represent a basic unit of information in computing. And just as multiple light switches can be combined to create more complex lighting patterns, multiple bits can be combined to represent more complex pieces of information. In short, a bit can be thought of as a digital light switch that can represent a basic unit of information in computing.

## Who Invented the Bits?

John Wilder Tukey, a visionary mathematician and statistician, is famously attributed with coining the term "bit," revolutionizing the world of computing and information theory. His prolific career spanned several decades, marked by groundbreaking contributions to various scientific disciplines. Tukey introduced this concise term, a contraction of "binary digit."

Tukey's concept of the bit laid the groundwork for the digital revolution, influencing the development of computer science, communication systems, and information technology. His innovative thinking not only transformed the way information was understood but also set the stage for the exponential growth of digital data storage, processing, and transmission. Beyond the term "bit", Tukey's profound contributions extended to various fields, shaping the modern landscape of statistics, mathematics, and scientific computing.

## Examples

Nibble: A nibble is a unit of digital information that consists of four bits. A nibble can represent 16 different values (2^4), ranging from 0000 to 1111 in binary, and is commonly used in computing to represent a single hexadecimal digit. Nibbles are sometimes used in low-level programming or hardware design, where data is stored or transmitted in groups of four bits.

Trit: A trit is a unit of digital information that consists of three bits. A trit can represent 27 different values (3^3), ranging from 000 to 222 in ternary (base-3) notation. Ternary computing is a hypothetical computing paradigm that uses trits instead of bits as its fundamental unit of information. Ternary computing has been studied as a potential alternative to binary computing, but has not yet been widely adopted.

Qubit: A qubit is a unit of quantum information that is similar in some ways to a bit, but is much more complex. A qubit is a quantum system that can exist in multiple states simultaneously, due to the phenomenon of quantum superposition. This means that a qubit can represent both a 0 and a 1 at the same time, unlike a classical bit which can only represent one value at a time. Qubits are used in quantum computing, a rapidly developing field that has the potential to revolutionize computing by enabling much faster and more powerful calculations than are possible with classical computers.