AMLD5The Fifth Anti-Money Laundering Directive, which is a set of regulations aimed at preventing money laundering and terrorist financing by establishing stricter requirements for customer due diligence and enhancing the powers of financial intelligence units in the European Union.
ASIC- ResistanceASIC- Resistant blockchains or algorithms are designed specifically to not give an advantage to ASIC computation over consumer grade hardware
AbstractA brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, conference proceeding, or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject or discipline, and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose.
Account A record of financial transactions for a specific entity, such as a person, business, or organization, that tracks changes in the balance of assets, liabilities, and equity over time.
Accumulation / Distribution IndicatorA technical analysis tool that measures the flow of money into or out of an asset by analyzing changes in price and volume.
Adam BackA British cryptographer known for his work on the Bitcoin white-paper and development of Hashcash, the mining function of Bitcoin.
Adaptive State ShardingA scaling solution in blockchain technology that divides the network into multiple smaller and dynamic partitions (shards) to improve transaction processing speed and scalability while maintaining security and decentralization.
Air GapA physical separation of a computer or network from other systems that ensures its protection by making data inaccessible and impervious to infections or corruptions.
AirDropMarketing strategy used in the cryptocurrency world where tokens or coins are distributed for free to a large number of users to increase their visibility and usage.
AirnodeAn infrastructure platform that enables developers to easily create, manage and monetize APIs by providing a seamless connection between APIs and the decentralized finance ecosystem.
Algorithmic Market Operations (AMOs)The use of algorithms to automate and optimize the execution of trading and investment strategies in financial markets.
Algorithmic StablecoinA type of cryptocurrency that uses algorithms to maintain its stable value relative to a pegged asset, such as the US dollar, through automatic adjustments in supply and demand
Algorithmic TradingThe use of computer programs and algorithms to automatically execute trades in financial markets based on mathematical models and rules.
All-Time-High (ATH)The highest recorded price ever achieved by a particular asset or market, typically used to refer to the peak of a cryptocurrency price.
All-Time-Low (ATL)The lowest recorded price ever achieved by a particular asset or market, typically used to refer to the bottom of a cryptocurrency price.
AllocationAllocation refers to the process of distributing a portion of equity or tokens to a particular portfolio, wallet, community, team, or other entity, with the aim of achieving specific goals and objectives.
AlphanumericA combination of alphabetic and numeric characters, often used for identification, labeling, or coding purposes.
AltcoinAn altcoin is any cryptocurrency other than Bitcoin, often created as a variant or fork of the original Bitcoin software with different features or algorithms.
Altcoin TraderAn individual or entity engaged in buying and selling alternative cryptocurrencies (altcoins) with the aim of making a profit.
Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3)A scalable, high-speed, web-based cloud storage service provided by Amazon Web Services (AWS) for storing and retrieving data from anywhere on the web.
Anarcho-CapitalismA political philosophy and economic theory that advocates for the abolition of the state and the establishment of a society based on the principles of voluntary exchange, private property rights, and free markets.
Angel InvestorA high-net-worth individual who provides capital for startups or small businesses, often in exchange for ownership equity or convertible debt, with the intention of earning a financial return.
Annual Percentage Rate (APR)A standardized representation of the cost of borrowing money, expressed as a yearly rate, that takes into account not only the interest rate but also other fees and charges associated with a loan.
Annual Percentage Yield (APY)A standardized calculation of the interest earned on a deposit account, expressed as a yearly rate, that takes into account the effect of compounding.
AnonymousA state or quality of being unknown or unacknowledged, often used to describe individuals who participate in a social or political activity without revealing their identity.
Anti-FragileA concept introduced by Nassim Nicholas Taleb in his book "Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder," which refers to systems or entities that not only withstand stressors and shocks, but actually benefit from and grow stronger as a result of them.
Anti-Money Laundering (AML)Refers to a set of laws, regulations, and procedures designed to prevent illegal money transfers and to identify and track the source of funds in order to combat money laundering, the financing of terrorism, and other financial crimes.
Anti-malwareSoftware specifically designed to detect, prevent, and remove malicious software (malware) such as viruses, spyware, Trojans, and other forms of harmful code from a computer or network.
AntivirusA type of software designed to detect, prevent, and remove malicious software (malware) such as viruses, Trojans, and other forms of harmful code from a computer or network.
ApeingApeing is a cryptocurrency slang term that refers to buying into a token without doing too much research.
Application Programming InterfaceAn API is a set of definitions and protocols for building and integrating application software.
Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC)An ASIC is a device whose sole purpose is to be used to mine cryptocurrencies
ArbitrageArbitrage in markets is a trading technique where an asset is purchased in one and is sold in another nearly simultaneously for profit due to price differences and market fluctuations.
Aroon IndicatorThe Aroon indicator is used to identify trend changes in the price of an asset as well as the strength of the trend.
Ask PriceThe ask price is the price given to an asset by the assets seller, or what they will sell it for.
Asset-Backed TokensAsset-Backed Tokens are digital representations of value of physical assets and are pegged to the same price.
Assets Under ManagementAssets Under Management (AUM) refers to the total market value of assets belonging to one entity that are managed by another on their behalf.
AstroturfingThe process of building a deceitful grassroots community behind a product, company, or project.
Asynchronous CommunicationAsynchronous Communication refers to a modular system where a network can operate autonomously while each module operates independently.
Atomic DexAn AtomicDex is the combination of a crypto wallet and decentralized exchange in the form of an application on desktop, mobile device, or on the web.
Atomic SwapAn atomic swap occurs when cryptocurrency is transferred without the use of an exchange or intermediary between one party to another.
Attestation LedgerAn attestation ledger is an account book which is designed to provide evidence of transactions and prove authenticity.
AuditAn independent examination and assessment of an organization's financial records, operations, and systems to verify the accuracy and validity of its financial reporting, to identify any potential weaknesses or risks, and to ensure compliance with relevant laws and regulations.
Augmented Reality (AR)A technology that enhances the real-world environment by overlaying digital information, such as images, sounds, or videos, in real-time on top of a user's physical surroundings, typically through a smartphone or tablet camera or a specialized AR headset.
AuthenticationAuthentication is the process of verifying validity or identity using proofs of ownership.
Automated Market Maker (AMM)An AMM is a computer program that automates the process of providing liquidity to remove the necessity for intermediaries in the trading of cryptocurrencies on a decentralized exchange (DEX).
BEP-721BEP-721 is a BNB Smart Chain (BSC) token standard that allows for the creation of non-fungible tokens (NFTs).
BEP-95BEP-95 is a Binance Evolution Proposal that introduces a real-time burning mechanism to BNB Smart Chain (BSC). It’s been introduced to make BNB’s tokenomics even more dynamic and further decentralize the network.
BEP20BEP-20 is a token interface standard for creating token contracts on BSC. BSC is the blockchain component of the BNB Chain that provides its users with a smart contract facility and is a platform for dApp development.
BEP20BEP-20 is a token interface standard for creating token contracts on BSC. BSC is the blockchain component of the BNB Chain that provides its users with a smart contract facility and is a platform for dApp development.
BagA popular phrase commonly used amongst crypto enthusiasts that refers to a large amount of a specific token or coin one owns as part of their portfolio or a collection of all crypto assets in their portfolio.
Bag HolderRefers to a cryptocurrency investor who owns and continues to hold a specific crypto asset regardless of the asset performance. Commonly it is used to describe individuals who bought a cryptocurrency at an overbought zone and continues to hold onto the asset, despite its falling value, hoping they will rebound when chances are they won't.
BakingRefers to the process of participating in the consensus mechanism of a blockchain network. This involves validating transactions and creating new blocks, and in return, the baker is rewarded with a portion of the network's rewards or transaction fees.
BandWidthThe maximum amount of data that can be transmitted over a network in a given amount of time.
Bank for International SettlementsAn international organization that serves as a bank for central banks, promoting global monetary and financial stability and acting as a forum for cooperation on banking and financial matters.
Banking Secrecy Act (BSA)The Banking Secrecy Act (BSA), also known as the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act, is a U.S. law that requires financial institutions to assist U.S. government agencies in detecting and preventing money laundering by maintaining records, reporting suspicious activity, and complying with government requests for information.
Banking as a Service (BAAS)A model of offering banking services and infrastructure through APIs and platforms, allowing other companies to offer financial products to their customers under their own brand.
BasketA portfolio of multiple cryptocurrencies or digital assets combined into a single investment, allowing investors to diversify their holdings and potentially reduce risk.
Batch AuctionsThe sale of a large quantity of digital assets, such as tokens, in a single transaction, allowing for efficient and transparent pricing and distribution of the assets among buyers.
Beacon ChainIt is a blockchain that coordinates shard chains, manages staking and the registry of validators in a Proof-of-Stake cryptocurrency, such as Ethereum 2.0.
BearA pessimistic individual or investor, not necessarily familiar with crypto investing, but believes the value of a specific crypto asset or the general crypto market will decline over a prolonged period.
Bear TrapWhen an individual or a group which holds a substantial amount of a cryptocurrency supply sells the tokens at an instant or almost immediately, creating fear amongst other investors, leading them to think, there will be a continuous drop in value, manipulating them to sell their tokens, hence losing their positions.
Bear WhaleA bear whale is a retail or institutional cryptocurrency trader who has a significant amount of capital or a sizable holdings of a particular cryptocurrency who is bearish on a position.
BenchmarkA standard that functions as a point of reference which aims to compare the performance analysis of various assets.
BetaBeta refers to the second stage of a software development cycle, and it comes right after the alpha stage. Beta consists of a phase where the software already has all the major features and functions working, but its efficiency, usability, and security still needs further testing.
Bid PriceThe highest price that a buyer is willing to pay for an asset, commodity, security or contract.
Bid/Ask SpreadA bid-ask spread is a difference between the maximum price buyers are willing to pay for an asset, and the minimum price sellers are ready to accept. While the bid price is the price put forward by the buyers, the ask price is the cost at which the sellers want to get the deal done.
Big TechAlso known as the Tech Giants, is a term that refers to the most dominant and largest technology companies in their respective sectors. Their products and services are used globally and have become heavily relied upon by businesses and individuals.
Binance Chain Evolution Proposal (BEP)BNB Chain defines its own set of standards for token issuance, management, and implementation known as BEP (BNB Evolution Proposals). BEPs are token management rules and pre-defined criteria for launching on-chain assets on BNB Chain.
Binance Chain Tokenization Standard (BEP-2)A technical standard on the Binance Smart Chain that facilitates the creation of fungible tokens for use as a medium of exchange.
Binance LabsBinance Labs is a social impact fund looking to invest in and empower blockchain and cryptocurrency entrepreneurs, projects, and communities
Binance LaunchpadA unique platform that allows users to have first-look access to promising new crypto tokens from various projects hosted by Binance.
Binary CodeA system by which numbers, letters and other information are represented using only two symbols, or binary digits. The binary definition to a computer is a 1s and 0s code arranged in ways that the computer can read, understand, and act upon.
BitThe most basic unit of data in telecommunications and computing that a computer can process and store. A bit is always in one of two physical states, similar to an on/off light switch. The state is represented by a single binary value, usually a 0 or 1.
Bit licensesThe BitLicense, a landmark cryptocurrency regulation, is a term used for a business license of virtual currency activities, issued by the New York State Department of Financial Services (NYSDFS) under regulations designed for companies or individuals that engage in Virtual Currency Business Activity.
Bitcoin ATMKiosks that allow a person to purchase or sell Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies by using cash or debit card. It acts as a physical Bitcoin exchange.
Bitcoin DominanceA ratio of Bitcoin's market cap compared to the cumulative market cap of all cryptocurrencies.
Bitcoin Improvement ProposalThe standard method employed to promote ideas, changes and improvements to the Bitcoin protocol, a formal document to introduce new features or processes to the network. BIPs can change anything from consensus rules to community standards or development processes within the protocol.
Bitcoin PizzaIt denotes the first real world transaction, where two pizzas were purchased for 10,000 Bitcoins in Jacksonville, Florida back in 2010.
Bitcoin TalkA public forum for the general discussion about the Bitcoin ecosystem and Blockchain technology.
BitcoinerA Bitcoiner is a person who actively engages in activities related to Bitcoin. This includes buying and HODLing Bitcoin, while also preaching the merits of the technology.
BitpayBitPay is a bitcoin payment service provider headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. It is a payment gateway that offers merchants the availability to accept funds using bitcoin.
BitsIn the context of cryptocurrencies, A Bit is the smallest unit, or subdivision, of Bitcoin (BTC).
BitstreamA binary sequence that comprises a sequence of bits, which includes the description of the hardware logic, routing, and initial values for both registers and on-chip memory.
Black Hat HackerA black hat hacker is a person who unauthorizedly attempts to find computer security vulnerabilities and exploit them for personal financial gain or other malicious reasons.
Black Swan EventA black swan is an unpredictable event that is beyond what is normally expected of a situation and has potentially severe consequences.
BlockData structures within the blockchain database, where transaction data in a cryptocurrency blockchain are permanently recorded.
Block ExplorerA tool that provides detailed analytics about a blockchain network since its first ever recorded transactions also known as the genesis block.
Block HeightThe number of blocks that were hashed and confirmed in the entire history of a particular blockchain network - from the genesis block (or block zero) until the most recent one.
Block ProducerA decentralized entity that exists on delegated proof-of-stake (DPoS) blockchains to create, process and verify a block of transactions on the network.
Block RewardBlock reward refers to the cryptocurrency rewarded to a miner when they successfully validate a new block.
Block SizeRefers to the maximum amount of transactions data a block can contain, measured in bytes. The largest amount of data a block can hold is called the block size limit.
Block TimeBlock time is the measure of the time it takes miners or validators within a network to verify transactions within one block and produce a new block in that blockchain.
Block TradeA block trade is a large, privately negotiated securities transaction arranged away from public markets to lessen the effect on the security's price.
BlockchainA digitally distributed database or ledger that is shared among the nodes of a computer network. As a database, a blockchain stores information electronically in digital format.
Blockchain 1.0The first generation of the Blockchain technology, This version is the simplest form of a decentralized ledger for recording transactions and storing the data across several computers.
Blockchain 2.0An extension and expansion to the capabilities of blockchain 1.0 protocol as it introduced the concept of decentralization of business and markets through smart contracts and improved security and transparency. Four years after the rise of Bitcoin, Vitalik Buterin introduced the concept of Ethereum, a technology based on blockchain with some notable improvements over the previous generation.
Blockchain 3.0The next blockchain development stage after Blockchain 2.0, it refines its predecessor’s technological capabilities. Aiming to resolve existing issues in the blockchain industry to facilitate mainstream adoption. It utilizes a directed acyclic graph (DAG) as its data structure to facilitate a unidirectional flow of information that cannot be returned to the sender, thereby eliminating block times.
Blockchain ExplorerA software that allows for the search of information on the blockchain, such as blocks, transactions, and blockchain network metrics (e.g., average transaction fees, hashrates, block size, block difficulty).
Blockchain TrilemmaThe idea that it is hard for blockchains to achieve optimal levels of scalability, decentralization and security simultaneously. Increasing one usually leads to a weakening of another.
Blockchain transmission protocol (BTP)A standard that renders heterogeneous blockchains interoperable, including blockchains that entail completely different consensus models and algorithms.
Blockchain-Enabled Smart LocksA smart-lock mechanism, which can only get operated when a user signs a smart contract through an authorized private key.
Bollinger BandBollinger Bands are simply highly technical tools that give traders an idea of which direction an asset price is moving.
Bonding CurveThe core concept of a bonding curve is, it is a mathematical curve that depicts the relationship between token supply and price. The price of a token is determined by its supply. The more tokens that have been distributed, the higher the price.
BotsA software application that is programmed to do certain tasks. Bots are automated, which means they run by themselves, performing generic or specific tasks spontaneously, with little or no direct human control according to the set of instructions given. Bots often imitate or replace a human user's behavior. Typically they do repetitive tasks, and they can do them much faster and precisely compared to human users.
BountyA reward initiated by a group or individual to incentivize certain work, behavior, or development. For instance, referral programs may be considered a kind of bounty.
Brave BrowserBrave Browser is a privacy focused browser, by default, Brave blocks all ads, and all trackers, from every website visited. One can easily import bookmarks and other settings from your old browser.
BreakingAlso known as hard fork, refers to a radical change to the protocol of a blockchain network that effectively results in two branches, one that follows the previous protocol and one that follows the new version.
Brian ArmstrongBrian Armstrong is the chief executive of Coinbase, the largest cryptocurrency exchange in the United States.
BridgesA protocol connecting two economically and technologically separate blockchains to enable interactions between them. They are cross-chain infrastructures that enable crypto holders to transfer cryptocurrencies from one blockchain to another without having to rely on third-party intermediaries.
Browser ExtensionA plugin for an internet browser that adds additional features. In the context of cryptocurrencies, a crypto browser extension is a type of software that adds cryptocurrency-related tools and features to a web browser.
Brute Force AttackWhen an attacker submits many passwords or passphrases with the hope of eventually guessing correctly and accessing the target account or profile.
BubbleAn economic cycle that is characterized by the rapid escalation of market value, particularly in the price of assets. This fast inflation is followed by a quick decrease in value, or a contraction, that is sometimes referred to as a "crash" or a "bubble burst."
Bug BountyA monetary reward given to ethical hackers for successfully discovering and reporting a vulnerability or bug ( a flaw in a computer's code that is an unintended consequence of design choices or mathematical errors in models) to the application's developer.
Bug ExploitGenerally, bugs could be seen as unauthorized windows to a system unknown to the system owners. Bug exploits refer to attacks in the form of programs, blocks of data or sets of commands that take advantage of system vulnerabilities in order to gain profit, distort data or to expose any particular system.
BullAn optimistic trader or investor who thinks the market, a specific security, or an asset is poised to rise. Investors who adopt a bull approach purchase assets under the assumption that they can sell them later at a higher price.
Bull TrapAlso called the 'Dead cat bounce' or 'suckers rally' It's a situation where a trader buys an asset believing its price will continue to rise only to see it fall sharply after reaching a new high.
Buy The Dip (BTD)A popular investment strategy that involves purchasing an asset, typically a stock or cryptocurrency, when its price has experienced a short-term drop in anticipation of the price recovering and potentially rising again.
Buy WallA large limit buy order or a series of buy orders placed at the same price point on a cryptocurrency exchange, creating a barrier or "wall" of buying pressure that can affect the price of a particular cryptocurrency.
Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT)A property of distributed systems that enables them to continue operating and reaching consensus even when some nodes in the network are faulty or malicious.
Byzantine General ProblemA challenge in distributed computing where a group of nodes must reach a consensus even when some nodes may be unreliable and potentially malicious.
C++An extension of the C programming language, allowing for cross-platform capabilities and development
CPU MinerA software program that uses a computer's central processing unit to mine cryptocurrencies by solving complex mathematical algorithms.
CandlesticksCandlestick charts are a type of financial chart used to display the price movements of a security, currency, or commodity. Each "candlestick" typically represents the open, high, low, and close prices for a given time period (e.g. one day).
CapitalFinancial capital is a way to describe the money and other resources that people and businesses use to make things happen.
Capital EfficiencyCapital efficiency refers to the way a business or organization uses its resources, such as money, time, and people, to get the most out of them.
Capital FundA capital fund is like a big piggy bank where people or organizations put money together to use for a specific purpose.
CapitulationIn finance, capitulation is when people who are trying to make money in the stock market or other investments, give up because they have lost a lot of money.
Casascius CoinA Casascius Coin is a type of physical coin that is made to hold a small amount of digital currency, like Bitcoin.
Cathie WoodCathie Wood is a well-known investment professional and the founder and CEO of Ark Invest, an investment management company that specializes in disruptive innovation and thematic investing.
CeDeFiCeDeFi, which stands for Centralized Decentralized Finance, is a term used to describe financial systems that combine elements of both centralized and decentralized finance.
CensorshipCensorship is when someone in charge, like a leader or the government decides that certain information, pictures, or words should not be shown or shared.
Censorship ResistanceCensorship Resistance blockchains are immutable and ensure that all transactions on the network cannot be altered.
Central BankThe Central Bank's goal is to evolve national economies, changing interest rates to spur or balance growth, and hold other country’s foreign exchange reserves for backing liabilities and shaping monetary policy.
Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC)A central bank digital currency (CBDC) is like digital money that is made and controlled by the central bank, like the boss of all the banks in a country.
Central LedgerA central ledger is a type of electronic database that serves as a central repository for storing and managing financial or other types of transactional data.
Central Processing UnitA Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the primary component of a computer that is responsible for executing instructions and processing data. It is often referred to as the "brain" of a computer, as it is responsible for carrying out the majority of the computations that occur within the system
CentralizationCentralization is an organizational structure where the process in which activities involving planning and decision-making within an organization lie under a single authority.
Centralized Exchange (CEX)A cryptocurrency marketplaces where trading is facilitated between users by an order book maintained by aggregated order systems where the custody of deposited funds on the exchange is taken over by the company.
Certificate of Deposit (CD)A product offered by financial institutions that provide interest rate premiums in exchange for a lump-sum deposit that cannot be withdrawn for a specified amount of time.
Chain ReorganizationThe process where a node will deactivate the blocks in its longest old chain to add the latest blocks that are the elements of the new longest chain.
ChangeThe number of coins sent back to an individual after they use their unspent outputs to initiate a transaction, this only relates to cryptocurrencies that use the UTXO model.
Change AddressA type of address that is used to receive the remaining balance from a transaction. It is used when a user makes a transaction that is for a specific amount, but the amount of cryptocurrency they have in their wallet is more than the amount needed for the transaction.
Changpeng Zhao (CZ)A Chinese-Canadian businessman and entrepreneur. He is the founder and CEO of Binance, one of the largest cryptocurrency exchanges in the world.
ChargebackA charge that is returned to a payment card or account after a customer successfully disputes an item or transaction they were charged.
Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME)A financial marketplace where people buy and sell contracts that are based on underlying assets such as currencies, commodities, bonds, and stock indices.
CiphertextThe resulting text after the use of an algorithm on the plain text. It is basically the scrambled or encoded version of a message produced by a cipher.
Circulating SupplyThe amount of a particular cryptocurrency that is currently available and can be traded on the market. It is the number of coins that have been mined or created and are in the hands of the public, it excludes the coins that are held by the team, locked, burned or any other form of restriction that would prevent them from being traded on the market.
ClientA piece of software, hardware, or individual that connects to the network in a peer-to-peer environment.
CloudCloud computing is when we use the internet to access a group of remote servers (computers) to store, manage and process data, instead of using a single computer or device.
Cloud MiningWhere individuals can rent part of the hash power from large-scale crypto mining companies, this is a form of credit for the mining company’s profits.
CodeThe programming code that makes up the underlying technology of a cryptocurrency. Each cryptocurrency is built on a specific type of code or blockchain technology, which defines how the currency operates, how transactions are processed, and how new units of the currency are created.
CoinA single unit of a cryptocurrency and is used to distinguish autonomous cryptocurrencies from tokens which operate on top of a parent blockchain.
Coin MixerAn online service that can be used to anonymize the source of cryptocurrency by mixing digital coins from multiple sources.
Coinbase (Exchange)An online platform and digital currency exchange where users can buy, sell, and store digital currencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum.
Coinbase (Mining reward)The reward given to miners for validating blocks of transactions on a blockchain, typically in the form of newly minted cryptocurrency.
Cold StorageA method of keeping digital assets, such as cryptocurrencies or data, offline and disconnected from the internet for increased security.
Cold WalletA type of cryptocurrency storage that is not connected to the internet, often in the form of a hardware device, for increased security.
CollateralAn asset or property that is pledged as security for a loan or other financial obligation.
Collateral TokensDigital tokens that represent a physical asset or currency held as collateral, often used in decentralized finance (DeFi) lending protocols.
CollateralizationThe practice of pledging an asset or property as security for a loan or other financial obligation.
Collateralized Debt Obligation (CDO)A type of structured asset-backed security that is backed by a pool of debt instruments such as bonds, loans or other debt instruments, which are then divided into different tranches with varying levels of risk and return.
Collateralized Debt Position (CDP)A type of financial instrument that allows users to borrow funds by collateralizing their crypto assets. In other words, it is a way to borrow money by using your own crypto assets as collateral.
Collateralized Mortgage Obligation (CMO)A type of mortgage-backed security that pools together mortgage loans and then redistributes the cash flows to different classes of investors based on the risk and return preferences.
Collateralized StablecoinA type of cryptocurrency that is designed to maintain a stable value by being backed by a reserve of assets, typically fiat currencies or other cryptocurrencies, which are held in a collateral pool and used to ensure that the stablecoin can be redeemed at a fixed exchange rate.
ComminglingThe practice of combining or mixing together assets, funds, or securities that belong to different parties, resulting in a loss of individual ownership and identity of the assets involved.
Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC)An independent US agency that regulates and oversees the trading of futures contracts and other derivatives, including those involving cryptocurrencies and blockchain-based assets.
Composable DeFiThe ability of decentralized finance (DeFi) protocols and applications to be combined and integrated with each other, allowing for the creation of more complex and sophisticated financial products and services on the blockchain.
Composable TokenA composable token is a type of cryptocurrency that can be used as a building block to create new tokens or to interact with other tokens and decentralized applications (dApps) on a blockchain, enabling greater flexibility and interoperability in the blockchain ecosystem.
ConfirmationThe process of verifying a new transaction or block added to the blockchain by multiple nodes on the network, providing an additional layer of security and immutability to the transaction.
ConsenSysA software development company that builds decentralized applications (dApps) and blockchain solutions using the Ethereum platform and is one of the largest and most influential players in the blockchain industry.
ConsensusThe process by which all participants in a network agree on the current state of the ledger, through a set of rules and protocols that ensure the accuracy and immutability of the data recorded on the blockchain.
Consortium BlockchainA type of permissioned blockchain in which multiple organizations, rather than a single entity, control the consensus process and maintain the network, making it suitable for use cases that require a high degree of privacy, scalability, and interoperability.
Consumer price index (CPI)A measure of the average change in the prices of goods and services purchased by households over time, used to track inflation and assess changes in the cost of living.
ContractA legally binding agreement between two or more parties. It outlines specific obligations and rights that each party must fulfill. Contracts can be written or oral and can be enforceable by law. In the realm of cryptocurrency, a contract is a digital agreement that is stored on a blockchain.
Contract AccountAn address on the network that is associated with a smart contract and can receive, hold, and transfer funds and execute code as specified by the contract.
Contract for Difference (CFD)A financial instrument that allows traders to speculate on the price movements of an underlying asset, without actually owning the asset, with the profit or loss being based on the difference between the entry and exit prices.
CoordinatorA special type of node in a cryptocurrency network that helps to coordinate the actions of other nodes, particularly validator nodes. Validator nodes are the nodes that validate transactions and create new blocks on the blockchain.
Core WalletA type of software program that stores the entire transaction history and blockchain of a cryptocurrency, providing a high level of security and autonomy to the user.
Corporate TreasuryThe financial management function within a company that oversees its financial assets, investments, and risk management strategies.
CorrectionA correction is a significant, short-term decline in the value of a financial market or asset, typically following a period of growth.
Craig WrightAustralian computer scientist and businessman who has claimed to be the creator of Bitcoin, although his claims have been widely disputed by the cryptocurrency community.
Credit RiskThe probability that a borrower will default on their financial obligations, resulting in a loss for the lender.
Cross-ChainThe ability of different blockchain networks to interact with one another. This allows for the transfer of assets or information between different blockchain networks. This can be done through a process called "atomic swaps" which allows for the exchange of one cryptocurrency for another without the need for a centralized intermediary.
Cross-border tradingThe buying and selling of goods or services between individuals or businesses located in different countries, often facilitated by international trade agreements and electronic platforms.
CrowdfundingA way to raise money for a project or venture by collecting small amounts of money from a large number of people, usually through an online platform.
CrowdloanA process in which people contribute cryptocurrency to a project in exchange for tokens or rewards.
Crypto AssetA digital asset that utilizes cryptography to secure and verify transactions and to control the creation of new units, often operating independently of a central bank or government.
Crypto Debit CardA payment card that allows users to spend their cryptocurrencies at merchants and withdraw cash from ATMs, similar to a traditional debit card.
Crypto InvoicingThe process of creating and sending invoices in cryptocurrency, allowing businesses to accept digital currency payments from their customers.
CryptocurrencyA digital or virtual currency that uses encryption techniques to secure transactions and control the creation of new units, operating independently of a central bank or government.
Cryptocurrency Money LaunderingThe use of cryptocurrency to conceal the source of illegally obtained funds by making them appear to be legitimate transactions.
Cryptocurrency PairsTwo different currencies that can be traded against each other on a cryptocurrency exchange, representing the relative value of one cryptocurrency in terms of another.
Cryptographic Hash FunctionA mathematical algorithm that produces a fixed-size output from arbitrary input data, which is one-way and collision-resistant.
CryptographyThe practice of securing communication from unauthorized access or manipulation through the use of mathematical algorithms and protocols.
CryptojackingA type of cyberattack where a hacker uses a victim's computing resources to mine cryptocurrency without their consent.
CryptologyThe study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties, encompassing both cryptography (the practice of secure communication) and cryptanalysis (the practice of breaking secure communication).
Currency CrisisA financial crisis that occurs when the value of a country's currency sharply declines, often leading to economic turmoil, social unrest, and political instability.
Dark NodesDark Nodes function as decentralized, trustless custodians for digital assets that users store on the RenVM platform.
Dark WebThe Dark Web is the portion of the internet that is not indexed by search engines and requires special software to host and visit web pages on it.
Data PrivacyData privacy is the protection of personal data from those who should not have access to it and the ability of individuals to determine who can access their personal information.
Date of LaunchData of Launch is a term used for the date a new project will launch and open trading to the public.
Day TradingDay trading is a process of buying and selling assets over the course of a day to gain profits.
Dead Cat BounceThe Dead Cat Bounce is a technical indicator where an asset that has been in a long-term downtrend makes what seems to be a temporary recovery which is shortly followed by a continuing downward trend.
Death CrossThe Death Cross is a technical indicator that occurs when the 50-day moving average falls below the 200-day moving average, this is an indication of a bearish market.
Decentralization RatioThe Decentralized Ratio is the ratio that measures the proportion of an asset's value that comes from decentralized sources.
DecentralizedDecentralized refers to the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision making, are distributed away from a central entity.
Decentralized APP (dAPP)A DApp is a type of application that runs on a decentralized blockchain network that supports smart contracts.
Decentralized Autonomous Initial Coin Offerings (DAICO)A crowdfunding mechanism for blockchain-based projects that seeks to provide more secure and transparent fundraising by integrating the features of a Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) with an Initial Coin Offering (ICO).
Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAO)A community-driven organization that operates on a blockchain-based decentralized network, with rules and decision-making determined through smart contracts and the consensus of its members.
Decentralized CurrencyAny currency that is not issued by a central bank or controlled by one entity and it can be transferred without needing a third party.
Decentralized DatabaseA system in which data is stored on a distributed network of nodes or participants, rather than on a central server, enabling increased security, transparency, and resilience.
Decentralized Exchange (DEX)A cryptocurrency exchange platform that allows for peer-to-peer trading of cryptocurrencies without the need for a central authority or intermediary.
Decentralized Finance (DeFi)A blockchain-based financial system that enables open, permissionless and transparent access to a range of financial services, including lending, borrowing, trading, and investing, without the need for intermediaries such as banks or brokerages.
Decentralized GovernanceA system of decision-making in which power and authority are distributed among multiple nodes or participants rather than being centralized in a single entity, allowing for more democratic and autonomous control over collective resources and decision-making.
Decentralized MarketplaceAn e-commerce platform where buyers and sellers can directly interact and transact with each other without the need for a central authority or intermediary.
Decentralized NetworkA type of network architecture in which nodes or participants are distributed throughout the system, without any central authority or control.
Decentralized Payment NetworkA financial system that allows for peer-to-peer transactions without the need for intermediaries such as banks or other financial institutions.
Decentralized StablecoinA type of cryptocurrency that aims to maintain a stable value relative to a particular asset, such as the US dollar, and is not controlled by a central authority, relying instead on a decentralized protocol for its issuance and maintenance.
DecryptionThe process of converting encrypted data back into its original, readable form, typically using a decryption key or password.
Deep WebThe part of the internet that is not indexed by standard search engines and requires specific software or authorization to access, often consisting of private or encrypted networks and unindexed websites.
Defi AggregatorA platform that integrates multiple decentralized finance protocols, allowing users to access a wide range of DeFi services and products in one place.
Defi DegensA term used to describe individuals who are actively engaged in decentralized finance (DeFi) protocols and are willing to take on high-risk investments for potentially high returns.
DeflationA general decrease in the overall level of prices for goods and services in an economy over time, resulting in an increase in the purchasing power of money.
Delegated Proof-of Stake (dPOS)A consensus algorithm used by some blockchain networks, where token holders elect a set number of nodes as validators to produce new blocks and verify transactions on their behalf.
Denial-of-Service Attack (DoS)A type of cyber attack that floods a network or server with traffic, rendering it unable to provide normal service to its intended users.
Depth ChartPlots outstanding limit orders to show the point where a transaction is most likely to be executed due to the market.
Deterministic WalletA type of cryptocurrency wallet that generates all private and public keys from a single seed or master key, making it possible to derive all subsequent keys and recover the entire wallet from a single backup.
Dex Aggregator A platform that combines liquidity from multiple decentralized exchanges (Dexes) to offer users the best possible trade execution prices and improved market depth.
Diamond HandsIn the context of investing, particularly in the stock market and cryptocurrency, to describe a strong conviction in holding onto a particular asset for a long period of time, despite market fluctuations or volatility.
DifficultyA measure of how hard it is to mine a new block in a blockchain network, based on the amount of computational power currently being used to secure the network. As more miners join the network or upgrade their hardware, the difficulty increases, and vice versa. This is done to ensure that new blocks are mined at a consistent rate and to maintain the security of the network.
DigitalElectronic technology that generates, stores, processes, and transmits data in a binary format consisting of ones and zeros.
Digital AssetAny form of electronic data or content that has value, including cryptocurrencies, tokens, digital certificates, and other digital representations of assets.
Digital Asset CustodianA third-party service provider that offers secure storage and management solutions for digital assets, such as cryptocurrencies, tokens, and other forms of digital value.
Digital Asset EcosystemThe infrastructure, platforms, and technologies that support the creation, exchange, and management of digital assets, such as cryptocurrencies, tokens, and other digital forms of value.
Digital Barter EconomyA system of exchanging goods or services without the use of physical currency, facilitated by digital platforms and technologies that enable direct, peer-to-peer transactions.
Digital CommodityA unique and scarce digital asset that is based on blockchain or distributed ledger technology, designed to function as a store of value or medium of exchange.
Digital Dollar (CBDC)A digital form of fiat currency that is issued and regulated by a country's central bank, designed to facilitate electronic payments, enhance financial inclusion, and improve the efficiency and security of payment systems.
Digital IdentityThe information that uniquely identifies an individual or entity online, including personal attributes, credentials, and online behavior.
Digital SignatureA mathematical scheme that uses cryptographic techniques to verify the authenticity, integrity, and non-repudiation of a digital document, message, or transaction.
DipA sudden, temporary drop in the value of an asset, market, or index, typically caused by a range of factors, including economic, political, or social events.
Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)A type of data structure that consists of nodes and edges connecting those nodes in a directed manner without any cycles, often used for efficient data processing and storage in distributed systems.
DiscordPopular instant messaging and digital distribution platform designed for creating communities and connecting gamers, developers, and other users through voice, video, and text communication.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) AttackA malicious attempt to disrupt normal traffic of a targeted server, service, or network by overwhelming it with a flood of traffic from multiple sources.
Distributed LedgerA type of database that is spread across a network of computers, which enables multiple parties to have a synchronized, secure, and immutable record of transactions or other types of data without the need for a centralized authority.
Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)A decentralized database system that allows multiple parties to have a synchronized, immutable, and secure record of transactions or other types of data without the need for a trusted central authority.
Distributed NetworkA network that uses multiple nodes or computers to share resources, data, and processing power, allowing for increased scalability, fault tolerance, and decentralized control.
Distributed consensusA process of reaching agreement among multiple nodes in a decentralized network to achieve a common goal or to validate a transaction or data in a consistent and trustless manner.
Do Your Own Research (DYOR)A phrase used to encourage individuals to conduct their own due diligence and investigate an investment opportunity before making a decision to invest.
Double Spend AttackA type of cryptocurrency attack where an individual or group attempts to spend the same unit of cryptocurrency twice by manipulating the network, typically by controlling the majority of the network's computing power or nodes.
Double SpendingThe act of spending the same unit of cryptocurrency more than once, which is typically prevented by blockchain networks through the use of consensus algorithms and transaction verification.
Dual-Token ModelA cryptocurrency framework where two types of tokens, typically utility and governance tokens, are issued and used for different functions within a blockchain network.
DumpThe act of selling a large amount of a particular cryptocurrency, often causing its price to drop rapidly.
DumpingThe practice of selling a large amount of a particular asset, such as stocks or cryptocurrencies, on the market in a short period of time, typically leading to a significant drop in the asset's price.
Dust TransactionsVery small and usually uneconomical cryptocurrency transactions that are often disregarded by network nodes due to their low value, and can sometimes lead to transaction backlog and increased fees.
Dusting AttackA type of cryptocurrency hack where small amounts of a new, potentially trackable cryptocurrency are sent to a large number of addresses, potentially allowing the attacker to de-anonymize the recipients and trace their transactions.
E-SignatureA digital signature that provides a secure, legally binding way to sign and approve documents electronically.
ERC-1155A standard for token contracts on the Ethereum blockchain that allows for the creation of both fungible and non-fungible tokens (NFTs) in a single contract, increasing efficiency and flexibility.
ERC-20A technical standard for smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, defining a common list of rules for tokens to follow within the Ethereum ecosystem, including how tokens are transferred, managed and stored.
ERC-223A proposed improvement to the ERC-20 standard for token contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, designed to address the issue of lost tokens resulting from the improper use of ERC-20's transfer function.
ERC-721A technical standard for non-fungible tokens (NFTs) on the Ethereum blockchain, allowing for the creation of unique, indivisible assets that can be owned, traded and managed on the blockchain.
ERC-777A proposed improvement to the ERC-20 standard for token contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, designed to offer greater flexibility and control over token transfers, and improved gas efficiency compared to the ERC-20 standard.
ERC-827A technical standard for token contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, extending the functionality of ERC-20 to allow for the transfer of tokens with more complex data payloads, such as the execution of smart contract functions and the transfer of multiple tokens in a single transaction.
ERC-884A technical standard for token contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, aimed at providing a standardized way to encode and transfer securities, such as stocks and bonds, on the blockchain. It defines a set of rules for token contracts to follow, allowing for the creation and transfer of tokens that represent ownership in a company or a portion of its profits.
ERC-948A proposed standard for token contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, aimed at creating a standard for token contracts that represent subscriptions for recurring payments, allowing for the creation of tokens that represent a right to receive regular payments.
Edge NodesDevices or computers located at the periphery of a network that serve as a communication point between the network and other connected devices or networks.
Elliot WavesA technical analysis tool that seeks to identify repetitive patterns in financial market data to make predictions about future market movements.
Email SpoofingThe forgery of an email header so that the message appears to have originated from someone or somewhere other than the actual source.
EncryptionThe process of transforming plain text into an unreadable form to protect its confidentiality and prevent unauthorized access or tampering.
Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA)A global standards organization that promotes the adoption and use of the Ethereum blockchain in the business world, through the development of standards, certification programs, and technology solutions.
EpochA fixed, predefined length of time in data processing or machine learning that represents a complete iteration over the entire dataset.
EquityThe ownership interest that a shareholder has in a company, represented by the residual value of assets after deducting liabilities.
Erasure EncodingA technique in data storage and transmission that involves breaking up data into smaller fragments and encoding them in a redundant manner to ensure data availability and reliability in the event of partial data loss or failure.
EscrowA financial arrangement where a neutral third party holds and manages funds or assets on behalf of a buyer and a seller, ensuring the safe and secure exchange of those assets only when predetermined conditions have been met.
EsportsA sort of online gaming where players are offered compensation by company’s or by winning competitions against other players.
EthashA proof-of-work consensus algorithm used by the Ethereum blockchain to validate transactions and secure the network, designed to be ASIC-resistant and promote a decentralized mining ecosystem.
Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP)A standardized process for proposing changes or improvements to the Ethereum protocol through a clear and concise design document for community review and discussion.
Ethereum TransactionA record of the transfer of value or data from one Ethereum address to another, confirmed and recorded on the Ethereum blockchain through a process known as mining.
Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)A secure and isolated software environment that executes smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, providing a predictable and consistent platform for decentralized applications (dapps) to interact with the Ethereum network.
ExchangeA platform that facilitates the buying, selling, and trading of financial instruments, such as stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, and cryptocurrencies, by bringing together buyers and sellers to execute trades in a centralized marketplace.
Exchanged Traded Fund (ETF)A type of investment fund that holds a diversified portfolio of assets and is traded on stock exchanges, allowing investors to buy and sell shares in the fund like a stock, providing exposure to the performance of the underlying assets in a convenient and cost-effective manner.
Exit ScamA fraudulent scheme in which the creators of a cryptocurrency or Initial Coin Offering (ICO) project suddenly disappear, taking with them the funds that have been raised from investors, without delivering the promised product or service.
Explain Like I’m Five (ELI5)A phrase used to request a simple and easy-to-understand explanation of a complex topic.
FATF Travel RuleThe Financial Action Task Force travel rule was derived from the Banking Secrecy Act that requires countries to monitor users who transmit more than $1,000 in a transaction. Ex: Information collected from users include name, account information, proof of address, and identity.
FUDsterA FUDster is an individual who is actively spreading FUD Ex: FUDsters sit in online messaging groups spreading FUD to psychologically damage others.
Falling KnifeA falling knife occurs when the price of an asset suddenly and dramatically depreciates. Ex: Falling knives can be followed by a swift rebound known as a whipsaw which will yield good returns for those who bought at the bottom.
Falling WedgeWhen a market centralizes between intersecting support and resistance lines a falling wedge forms, this is a bullish indicator. Ex: Key features of a falling wedge are converging trend lines, decreasing volume as the trend line advances, and preceded by a breakout across the upper trend line.
Fan TokenFan Token: A fan token is a type of cryptocurrency which grants privileges to its holders in the form of membership related benefits in a sports team. Ex: Socios is termed as the pioneer of creating fan tokens using the Chiliz platform.
FaucetA Faucet is an award system where users will complete certain tasks on a website in return for cryptocurrency. Ex: Developed in 2010, the Bitcoin faucet awarded users with 5 BTC per task.
Fear of Missing Out (FOMO)FOMO is a psychological condition where somebody buys an asset in a panic usually as it is appreciating because they think they will miss out on potential gains. Ex: During the 2021 bullrun most real investors were FOMO buying at the all time highs of the alt-coins shortly before falling significantly in price.
Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt (FUD)FUD can be speech or an attitude used by an individual or group directed at other individuals, groups, or projects Ex: FUD is most common in online messaging services or on social media.
Fee TiersFee tiers refer to the structured charges that users acquire while interacting with crypto exchanges or smart contracts. Ex: On a CEX users pay operating fees to trade currencies and withdraw fees to move assets off of the exchange, in DEX’s users pay transaction fees directly to the network.
FiatFiat refers to legal tender backed by a central government. Ex: Fiat currency recognized for trade and the only fiat accepted for payment of taxes in the United States is USD.
Fiat On-RampA fiat on-ramp is a means of exchanging fiat, or legal tender, for a digital asset. Ex: Fiat on-ramps are now integrated into many wallets and decentralized exchanges, requiring less transactions for users.
Fiat-Pegged CryptocurrencyA fiat-pegged cryptocurrency is a digital asset whose value represents the backing of a bank-issued or government currency. Ex: Often referred to as stablecoins, this includes tokens such as USDC and USDT.
Fibonacci Retracement LevelA Fibonacci retracement level is created by horizontal lines drawn using support and resistance levels on a market’s graph Ex: Fibonacci ratios identify the price momentum of an asset in markets.
Field Programmable Gate ArrayA field programmable gate array is a programmable logic using an application-specific integrated circuit for tailored specific uses. Ex: Users program the gate array after production for their specific needs.
Financial Action Task Force (FATF)The Financial Action Task Force is an intergovernmental organization which developes policies to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. Ex: Formed in 1989 by G7, the task force researches money laundering trends, monitors legislative, financial, and law enforcement activities, and reporting compliance.
Financial Crime Enforcement Network (FinCEN)FinCEN is a United States Financial Intelligence Unit who is one of more than 100 organizations belonging to the international Egmont Group. Ex: FinCEN collects and analyzes information looking for transactions related to money laundering and terrorist funding.
Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Center (FINTRAC)FINTRAC is the Canadian nation’s financial intelligence agency. Ex: The agency operates under the Proceeds of Crime Money and Terrorist Financing Act.
First In, First Out (FIFO)FIFO is an accounting method used to calculate cost basis and capital gains and is the recommended method by the IRS for cryptocurrency tax compliance. Ex: The FIFO will not give you more amount of capital gains owed compared to the Highest in, First Out (HIFO) method but is recommended nonetheless.
First-Mover Advantage (FMA)First-mover advantage refers to the advantage the earliest project in a specific industry has compared to their competitors because of their early entry in the markets. Ex: First mover advantage is often a relevant factor in the market value of cryptocurrency projects in certain disciplines.
FishA Fish is a slang word for an individual with a small investment in a cryptocurrency. Ex: Fish make up the bulk of the retail investors and are commonly the most hurt by price fluctuations.
Flash CrashA flash crash is a very rapid depreciation of price in an asset within a brief time interval. Ex: Pump and dump tokens will usually end in a flash crash which they never recover from due to a community full of “degens”.
Flash LoanA flash loan is a defi instrument where a loan is swiftly processed,acquired, and repaid in a very short period without requiring a form of collateral. Ex: Flash loans are able to be given without collateral because there is no credit or counterparty risk due to synchronicity of borrowing and repayment.
Flash Loan AttackFlash loan attacks are exploits in DeFI where a smart contract designated to support the provision of flash loans is attacked in order to siphon assets stored in any particular pool. Ex: Flash loan attacks involve borrowed capital to arbitrage assets from other DeFi protocols.
FlippeningThe flippening is a scenario where Ethereum’s market cap surpasses that of bitcoin, this is a hypothetical situation. Ex: Bitcoins market cap compared to Ethereums is currently at a 775:349 ratio.
FlippingFlipping is the process of buying an asset and reselling it when the price has appreciated. Ex: Most cryptocurrency investors buy with the intent to flip their assets for a profit.
Fork (Blockchain)A fork is when a blockchain splits into two simultaneously running networks, the original staying intact and a new one with different features. Ex: The Bitcoin Cash blockchain was created as a fork of Bitcoin in 2017.
Fork (Software)A software fork is where an open source software has been developed into an entirely new program. Ex: Software forks are extremely common on the Binance Smart Chain where Dapps with forked software are being launched daily.
Fractional StablecoinsA fractional stablecoin is one that is only partially backed by collateral while being stabilized using an algorithm. Ex: Fractional stablecoins are known to be extremely hard to implement given they aren’t fully collateralized and are initially volatile.
Fraud ProofUsing optimistic rollups fraud proofs reduce costs and lower latency levels for Dapps on a blockchain network. Ex: Fraud proofs show that a state transition was made incorrectly but are only required when things go wrong, using less computing resources.
Front RunningFront running is when a transaction is placed in a queue before another transaction, knowledgeably cutting the user that should be next in line. Ex: On the Ethereum blockchain, front running can occur when bots are able to quote a higher gas price than a pending trade, thus, hastening its processing.
Full NodeA Full node is a node that downloads the entire history of the blockchain and is able to fully validate transactions and blocks. Ex: Regular nodes have only a portion of the complete history of the blockchain whereas full nodes contain the full history and have the essential task of validating a transaction or block with all of the blockchain’s history.
Fully Homomorphic EncryptionFully homomorphic encryption is a form of encryption scheme that allows computations to be performed on data while it is still encrypted. Ex: In the case of medical documentation, a doctor may be allowed to query a database to determine whether specific patients have been treated without accessing other personal information.
Fundamental Analysis (FA)Fundamental analysis is the process of researching an asset by investigating the technology, tokenomics, and team to speculate on future value. Ex: Fundamental analysis should be the first form of research conducted on any asset in any asset class.
Funding PaymentsFunding payments are used in cryptocurrency derivative exchanges for perpetual contracts which drives the trade price closer to the index price of the underlying asset. Ex: Funding payments are calculated by the notional value of a trader’s position multiplied by a rate that reflects the price discrepancy in a given interval.
FungibleFungible refers to an asset's nature that one part or quantity may be replaced by another equal part or quantity. Ex: In cryptocurrency fungible relates to a token’s ability to be of the same value and hold the same properties of another one of the same tokens.
Game TheoryThe study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers.
Game channelA modern innovation in blockchain technology that enhances the gaming experience by enabling fast and seamless gameplay by eliminating the wait time between moves.
GameFiA decentralized platform for buying, selling, and exchanging digital assets related to video games and gaming culture.
GasThe fee charged for executing transactions or smart contract operations on the blockchain, which serves as an incentive for the network's participants to validate and process the transactions.
Gas limitthe maximum amount of gas that a user is willing to spend on a transaction or smart contract execution, serving as a control mechanism for the cost of the operation.
Gavin WoodA British software engineer and entrepreneur, best known as a co-founder and former Chief Technology Officer of Ethereum.
GemsSmall, lesser-known cryptocurrency projects with a low market capitalization that have the potential for significant growth and profits, but can also be high-risk investments.
Genesis blockThe first block in a blockchain network and serves as the foundation of the entire system, containing the initial set of transactions and serving as the starting point for all future blocks.
Geotagged NFTA type of Non-Fungible Token that is associated with a specific location and can be used to represent virtual or physical assets that are tied to a specific place.
GethOpen-source, command-line interface client for interacting with the Ethereum blockchain, allowing users to mine, transfer, and manage Ether (ETH) and other Ethereum-based assets.
GitHubA web-based platform for version control and collaboration that allows developers to store, manage, and track changes to their code, as well as to share and contribute to code repositories created by others.
Gold-Backed CryptocurrencyA type of cryptocurrency that is backed by a reserve of physical gold, where the value of the currency is pegged to the price of gold, aiming to provide stability and a hedge against market volatility.
Golden CrossA technical analysis pattern in which a short-term moving average crosses above a long-term moving average, indicating a bullish trend and potentially signaling a new uptrend in the market.
Google AuthenticatorA free security app that provides two-factor authentication for user accounts by generating time-based one-time passcodes.
GovernanceSet of processes, principles, and rules by which a society or organization is managed and controlled.
Governance tokenA cryptocurrency token that gives its holder the right to participate in the decision-making process of a decentralized organization or network by allowing them to vote on proposals and changes to the protocol.
Graphical processing unitA specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly process and render images, animations, and video.
Greater Fool Theory An investment philosophy that suggests that it's possible to make money by buying assets that are overvalued or have no intrinsic value, as long as there is a "greater fool" who is willing to pay a higher price for it.
Group miningAlso known as pool mining, is a method of cryptocurrency mining where individuals combine their computational resources to increase their chances of finding blocks and earning rewards, which are then distributed among the members according to their contributed hash power.
HODLSlang term used in the cryptocurrency community that stands for "Hold On for Dear Life" and refers to the strategy of holding onto one's investments despite market volatility.
Hackingwhere a user can manipulate the code of another computer or server and bypass the firewall gaining access to any files on the computer.
Hal FinneyOne of the first recipients of a cryptocurrency transaction, helping pave the way to its success.
Hard CapThe most amount of a cryptocurrency that can be produced, or contributed in the case of fundraising.
Hard ForkAn event in which a blockchain or token is "Updated" by discarding an old network and implementing a new.
Hard Fork (Combinator)upgrades added to the blockchain after a hard fork is used to combine multiple protocols.
Hardware Security ModuleA dedicated crypto processor that provides secure storage of cryptographic keys and facilitates encrypted transactions, providing a higher level of security for sensitive information compared to software-based solutions.
Hardware WalletA physical device designed to securely store cryptocurrency private keys, offering increased security compared to software wallets by keeping the keys isolated from the internet.
HashA cryptographic function that takes an input (or 'message') and returns a fixed-size output string, serving as a digital fingerprint that is used for verifying the integrity of the data and for data security.
Hash Power/Hash RateA measurement of the computing power of a cryptocurrency mining rig or network, representing the number of hashes (mathematical operations) it can perform per second.
Hash functionA mathematical function that takes an input (or 'message') and returns a fixed-size string of characters, which serves as a unique digital fingerprint of the original data, used for security purposes in cryptography and data structures.
Hedge ContractServe as a form of insurance for investors by helping to mitigate the risk of financial loss in the event of significant market volatility or other unfavorable conditions.
Hidden CapA feature in crowdfunding or initial coin offering (ICO) campaigns that sets a maximum limit on investment, allowing smaller investors to participate by hiding the actual cap from public view.
Hierarchical Deterministic WalletA type of cryptocurrency wallet that generates new addresses for each transaction, providing increased privacy and security through the use of a single seed phrase for backup and recovery.
HoneyminerSoftware that enables individuals to easily mine multiple cryptocurrencies by utilizing their computer's spare computing power.
Hosted WalletDigital wallet managed by a third-party service provider, which enables users to access and use the wallet, but with limited control over the underlying assets.
Hot StorageA storage solution for digital assets that is connected to the internet and therefore easily accessible, making it suitable for more frequent transactions.
Hot WalletA cryptocurrency wallet that is connected to the internet and used for storing, sending, and receiving digital assets.
Howey test A four-pronged test used to determine whether an investment contract is a security and subject to federal securities regulation.
Huobi BTCHuobi BTC is a crypto-currency exchange run by Huobi, a global digital asset financial services provider founded in 2013.
Hybrid PoW/PoSA consensus mechanism that combines elements of both Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS) algorithms in order to secure a blockchain network. It is designed to provide the best of both worlds - the security of PoW and the efficiency of PoS.
IP Address (Internet Protocol address)A unique numerical label assigned to each device connected to the internet, used to identify and locate the device on a network.
Impermanent lossA phenomenon in decentralized finance where the value of a token in a liquidity pool decreases due to price changes between the tokens being traded, resulting in a temporary loss for liquidity providers.
In The Money / Out Of The MoneyThe profitability of a derivative contract, such as options, where if the contract has intrinsic value it is considered In The Money and if it lacks intrinsic value it is Out Of The Money.
Infinite ApprovalA consensus mechanism in blockchain technology where validators continuously validate transactions and add blocks to the chain as long as they receive rewards.
Infinite Mint Attack A potential vulnerability in cryptocurrency systems where an attacker can mint an unlimited amount of tokens and significantly inflate the supply, potentially causing economic damage to the system and its users.
InflationThe general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing power of money over a period of time.
Initial Bounty Offering (IBO)A method of fundraising in the blockchain industry where a project rewards supporters with tokens for participating in specific tasks to promote the project and increase its visibility.
Initial Coin Offering (ICO)A fundraising mechanism where a new cryptocurrency project sells its tokens to early adopters in exchange for funding, with the hope of increasing its value in the future and providing liquidity for the tokens
Initial Dex Offering (IDO)A type of fundraising event in the cryptocurrency industry where a new token is launched and made available for trading on a decentralized exchange.
Initial Exchange Offering (IEO)A type of crowdfunding event in the cryptocurrency industry where a new token is launched and made available for trading on a centralized exchange platform.
Initial Farm Offering (IFO)A type of cryptocurrency fundraising event where token holders can earn rewards by staking their tokens in a liquidity pool.
Initial Game Offering (IGO)A fundraising event in the gaming industry where a new virtual item or currency is offered for purchase in a game before it becomes widely available.
Initial Public Offering (IPO)The first sale of stock by a company to the public, used to raise capital from public investors.
Initial Token Offering (ITO)A type of crowdfunding event in the cryptocurrency industry where a new token is launched and made available for purchase in exchange for existing cryptocurrencies or fiat currency
Insider Trading The illegal practice of using confidential information to buy or sell securities for personal profit.
InstamineThe situation in the cryptocurrency industry where a large portion of a new token's supply is mined or distributed to a small group of early adopters shortly after the launch, potentially resulting in unfair distribution and centralization.
Instant Settlement Network LayerA payment system that enables near-instant transfer and clearance of funds, often using blockchain technology to eliminate intermediaries and increase efficiency.
Institutional InvestorA large organization, such as a bank, pension fund, or insurance company, that invests funds on behalf of its clients or for its own benefit.
Insurance FraudThe deliberate act of making false or exaggerated claims to an insurance company with the intent to obtain financial gain.
Intellectual PropertyA legally protected category of creations of the mind, such as inventions, literary and artistic works, symbols, names, images, and designs, used to secure exclusive rights for their creators to commercialize and prevent unauthorized use.
Intercontinental ExchangeA leading operator of global exchanges and clearing houses, providing trading and risk management services across multiple asset classes, including futures and options on energy, agricultural products, and financial instruments.
Interest RatesThe percentage of an amount borrowed or saved that represents the cost of borrowing or return on saving, and play a crucial role in the economy by affecting the cost of borrowing, return on savings, and value of investments.
Intermediary / MiddlemanA person or entity that acts as a link between two parties, facilitating transactions and often adding value by providing information, expertise, or other services.
Internal TransactionTransactions that occur within a single organization, between its different departments, business units, or subsidiaries, without involving external parties.
Internet MemesA cultural symbol or social idea that is spread via the internet, often in the form of an image, video, or piece of text, that is meant to be humorous or satirical and typically evolves over time through remixing and creative variations.
Internet Service Provider (ISP)A company that provides access to the internet, either through wired or wireless connections, to individuals and organizations.
Internet of Things (IOT)A system of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with sensors, software, and network connectivity, enabling them to collect and exchange data over the internet, providing new opportunities for automation, remote control, and improved efficiency.
InteroperabilityThe ability of different blockchain systems to communicate and exchange data with each other, allowing for seamless integration and creating a more connected ecosystem.
Interplanetary File System (IPFS)A decentralized and distributed network protocol designed to store and access files in a peer-to-peer fashion, allowing for a more resilient and scalable web infrastructure.
Intrinsic ValueThe inherent worth of an asset, such as a stock, bond, or real estate, that is separate from its market price and is estimated based on factors such as future cash flows, earnings potential, or other underlying fundamental metrics.
InvestThe act of allocating resources, such as money or time, with the expectation of generating a profit or acquiring additional assets in the future.
JOMO"Joy of missing out" refers to non-investors having the feeling of relief that they were not involved in an asset that loses its value.
KYC - Know Your Customer"Know your customer" rules are a series of identity verification steps companies use to ensure that users are who they say they are.
KeyloggerA Spying program used by hackers to take advantage of unsuspecting users that analyzes their keystrokes to gain private information
Kimchi PremiumA way to make the value of crypto or another asset look higher than it actually is on other international platforms
LamboShort for Lamborghini, referring to the dream that many users have from getting rich off of crypto.
Laser EyesUsers who are infatuated with Bitcoin or other crypto's, also referred to as "Bitcoin Maxi's"
Layer 0A blockchain structure that operates on a global scale, connecting the world’s major blockchains to create a unified network. It enables users to securely store, trade, and manage digital assets across all major blockchain networks, eliminating the need for multiple wallets.
Layer 1 blockchain A fundamental blockchain platform that provides the basic infrastructure and protocols needed to secure and validate transactions and maintain a decentralized ledger, serving as the foundation for higher level applications and services.
Layer 2 A layer of technology that exists on top of an existing blockchain network. It is used to improve the scalability, privacy, and speed of transactions within the blockchain network.
LeverageThe use of borrowed capital to increase the potential return of an investment. By using leverage, an investor can increase their exposure to an asset, such as stocks, without having to invest the full amount of the purchase price.
Leveraged tokensFinancial products that provide leveraged exposure to an underlying asset, such as stocks, and are tokenized and traded on decentralized exchanges. They offer magnified returns, but also increased potential losses, similar to margin trading.
Libp2pAn open-source, secure network stack that helps developers create network applications. It provides a modular, secure, and extensible peer-to-peer networking framework for applications and services.
Light NodeCryptocurrency node that does not store the entire blockchain, but instead relies on other full nodes for information to validate transactions, used to reduce storage and computational requirements.
Lightning NetworkA second layer payment protocol built on top of the Bitcoin blockchain to enable fast, low-cost, off-chain transactions.
Limit Buy/Limit SellAn instruction to purchase or sell an asset at a specified price or better, ensuring a trade only occurs at the specified price or a better one.
Liquid MarketA financial market with high trading volume and the low bid-ask spread, allowing assets to be easily bought and sold at close to their fair market value.
LiquidityThe ease with which an asset can be bought or sold in a market, usually measured by the volume of trades and the stability of its price.
Liquidity Bootstrapping Pool (LBP)A mechanism used to quickly increase the liquidity of a new decentralized exchange (DEX) by incentivizing early adopters to provide liquidity in exchange for rewards.
Liquidity MiningA technique to encourage individuals to provide liquidity to a decentralized exchange by offering them tokens as compensation.
Liquidity PoolA collection of assets used to provide buy and sell orders in a financial market, ensuring its stability and enabling smooth trading.
Liquidity ProviderAn entity or individual that supplies capital to a market to ensure its stability and facilitate trading by providing buy and sell orders.
Liquidity Provider Tokens (LP Tokens)A type of cryptocurrency token that represents ownership in a pool of assets that are used to provide liquidity to a decentralized exchange (DEX).
LivenessA property of a computer system that ensures it is always able to make progress and avoid getting stuck in an unresponsive state.
Location SwapExchanging the ownership of a tokenized claim without altering any other aspect of the token or the underlying assets.
MalwareMalware is short for malicious software. These programs are found all over the internet and are used by hackers to gain access to your computer or information.
Man-in-the-middle Attack (MITM)MITM attacks occur when a person injects themselves into the communication between to parties. The person in the middle can typically read all messages and alter them before it gets delivered to the other party.
Margin CallWhen the balance in an account falls below the margin maintenance level, a demand is issued for additional funds
Margin TradingThe practice where an investor uses borrowed funds from a broker or other institution to trade securities.
Market Capitalization (Market Cap)Market Capitalization refers to the total value of all the shares of a company's stock, also known as a companies valuation.
Market Maker, Market TakerMarket Makers place orders to buy or sell something, while market takers accept the offers to buy or sell said item.
Market Order, Market Buy, and Market SellThe buying or selling of a cryptocurrency or security at the current price on an exchange.
Market SignalThe unintentional or passive communication between members of a particular market, usually used to determine when to buy or sell a cryptocurrency.
MasternodeMasternodes can perform the same functions as regular nodes while also having additional functionalities. They were popularized by Dash to reward the operators of nodes for maintaining the blockchain.
Max SupplyThe maximum amount of coins of a specific cryptocurrency that can ever exist. Many will drop below this initial amount through burning tokens.
Medium of ExchangeA system or item that acts as a currency or intermediary for people looking to buy and sell or trade goods.
Megahashes Per SecondA measurement of mining power. Most mining machines can perform in the millions of hashes per second, or megahashes.
MemecoinCryptocurrency tokens that are solely based on memes. Their token name, marketing, and image are typically centered around a specific meme.
Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)A non-binding agreement between two or more parties outlining the terms and objectives of a proposed partnership or project.
Mercenary CapitalInvestment capital that is focused on achieving short-term gains through aggressive tactics, often involving buying and selling shares rapidly or participating in hostile takeover bids.
Merkle TreeA data structure used in blockchain technology to efficiently verify the integrity of large amounts of data by creating a hash tree where every leaf node is a hash of a data block and every non-leaf node is a hash of its child nodes.
MicrotransactionA small financial transaction conducted online, typically for the purchase of virtual goods or in-game items.
Mid CapA company with a market capitalization that falls between that of large-cap and small-cap companies, typically considered to be between $2 billion and $10 billion.
Mimetic TheoryA philosophical approach that suggests human desire is largely shaped and driven by imitating others in society.
MineableThe ability to extract a cryptocurrency or other valuable resources through the process of mining, which involves using computer hardware to solve complex mathematical problems and validate transactions on a blockchain network.
MinecraftA popular sandbox video game where players can build and explore virtual worlds made of blocks and objects, and interact with other players online.
Miner Extractable Value (MEV)The economic benefit that can be captured by a miner in a blockchain network due to their ability to manipulate certain aspects of the network for their own gain, such as through front-running or censorship.
MinersIndividuals or companies who use specialized computer equipment to verify transactions on a blockchain network and add new blocks in exchange for a reward.
Minimum Collateralization Ratio (MCR)The minimum amount of funds that must be held at any given time by someone getting a loan.
Minimum Viable Product (MVP)A product with just enough features to satisfy early adopters and provide feedback for future development.
MiningThe process by which a network of decentralized computers create blocks, verifying transactions on the blockchain. A reward, usually in native tokens, is awarded to the computer, or node, to create the block.
Mining ContractA pre-defined agreement between a miner and a client in which the miner provides mining services to the client in exchange for a fee, usually denominated in the cryptocurrency being mined.
Mining DifficultyA measure of how difficult it is to find a new block in a blockchain network, which is adjusted dynamically to ensure the consistent production of blocks at a constant rate.
Mining FarmA facility used for cryptocurrency mining, consisting of a large number of interconnected devices dedicated to solving complex mathematical problems in order to validate transactions and generate new coins.
Mining PoolA network of miners who collaborate to increase their chances of finding and validating new blocks, and then share the rewards proportionally based on the contributed computing power.
Mining RewardThe incentive offered to a miner who successfully adds a new block to a blockchain network, typically in the form of newly minted coins or transaction fees, as a way to compensate for the time, effort, and resources spent on performing the mining operation.
Mining RigA computer system specifically designed and configured for the purpose of mining cryptocurrencies, consisting of multiple high-performance GPUs (graphics processing units) or ASICs (application-specific integrated circuits) to solve complex mathematical algorithms in order to validate transactions and add new blocks to the blockchain.
MinnowIn the context of cryptocurrency, refers to a small investor or a new user in the crypto community who has a small portfolio or minimal influence.
MintingThe process of creating new units of a cryptocurrency or token, typically through a consensus mechanism such as proof-of-stake or proof-of-work, and adding them to the total supply of that cryptocurrency.
Mnemonic PhraseAlso known as a seed phrase or recovery phrase, is a sequence of words used as a backup to recover or regenerate the private keys in a cryptocurrency wallet, allowing the user to access their funds even if their device is lost or damaged.
MnemonicsA memory aid, such as a word, phrase, or acronym, used to help recall a larger piece of information, such as a passphrase or seed phrase used in cryptocurrency wallets to securely store private keys.
Mobile WalletA virtual wallet that resides on a mobile device and allows users to securely store, manage, and use various forms of digital assets, such as cryptocurrencies, mobile payments, and loyalty points, as well as traditional financial assets, such as credit and debit cards.
Moloch DAOA decentralized autonomous organization built on the Ethereum blockchain that allows its members to pool their resources, propose and vote on projects, and allocate funds towards shared goals, with the purpose of supporting the development of the Ethereum ecosystem.
Monetary PolicyThe process by which a central bank manages the supply of money and interest rates in an economy, with the aim of promoting economic growth, stabilizing prices, and achieving other macroeconomic objectives.
Money Flow Index (MFI)A technical indicator in finance that uses both price and volume information to measure buying and selling pressure, and identify potential trend reversals, by comparing positive and negative money flow over a specified period of time.
Money LaunderingThe process of disguising illegally obtained funds as legitimate by passing them through a complex series of transactions in order to conceal their illegal origin.
Money MarketA segment of the financial market where financial instruments with high liquidity and low risk, such as government bonds, certificates of deposit (CDs), and Treasury bills, are bought and sold with the goal of preserving capital and earning a modest return.
Money Transfer LicenseA regulatory permit granted by a financial authority to a company, allowing it to operate as a money transmitter and engage in the business of transmitting money or monetary value domestically or internationally.
Money TransmitterA company or individual that transfers or transmits money or monetary value from one person or entity to another, and is typically regulated by government agencies for the purpose of preventing money laundering and other illegal activities.
MoonA situation where the price of a particular digital asset rapidly rises to stratospheric levels, leading to substantial profits for investors, and is often used colloquially to express excitement or optimism about the future price prospects of a cryptocurrency.
Moore's LawAn observation made by Gordon Moore, co-founder of Intel, in 1965, which states that the number of transistors on a microchip will double approximately every two years, leading to a corresponding increase in computing power and a decrease in cost per transistor.
Moving Average (MA)A statistical calculation that plots the average value of a security's price over a specified number of periods, with the purpose of smoothing out fluctuations and highlighting its underlying trend.
Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD)A popular trend-following momentum indicator in technical analysis used to identify potential buy or sell signals by plotting the difference between two moving averages of price and a signal line.
Mt. GoxA cryptocurrency exchange based in Japan that was one of the largest and most widely used exchanges for trading Bitcoin, until it filed for bankruptcy in 2014 following a large-scale security breach that resulted in the loss of a significant amount of its clients' funds.
Multi-Coin WalletA cryptocurrency wallet that supports multiple types of digital assets and enables users to store, manage, and trade different cryptocurrencies within a single platform.
Multi-Party ComputationA type of cryptography that enables multiple parties to jointly compute a function over their private inputs without revealing them to each other.
Multi-Party Computation as-a-ServiceA cloud-based service that allows multiple parties to securely compute and process data together, while keeping the individual inputs confidential, through the use of advanced cryptographic techniques.
Multi-Signature (Multi-Sig)A security feature for cryptocurrency transactions that requires more than one signature, or approval, to execute a transaction and access funds.
Negative Volume IndexThe Negative Volume Index is a trading tool used to determine what 'smart-money' may do.
Network-Enhanced Virtual MachineNEVM bridges positive attributes from BTC and ETH to enable smart contract style functionality on the bitcoin blockchain
NewbA newb refers to someone who is 'new' to an industry, community, game, or other competitive activity.
Nick SzaboThere is a somewhat popular theory that Nick Szabo is the real identity of the pseudonymous Satoshi Nakamoto, the creator of Bitcoin.
NodeA participant in the network that maintains a copy of the distributed ledger, helps validate transactions and keeps the network synchronized.
NominatorsParticipants in a Nominated Proof-of-Stake (NPoS) blockchain system who support validators by "nominating" them to create blocks, providing both an added layer of decentralization and a stake in the network's security.
Non-CustodialServices where assets or information is held by the user directly instead of by a central authority
Non-Fungible Token (NFT)A unique digital asset that represents ownership or proof of authenticity of a specific item, such as a piece of art or a collectible, on a blockchain network.
Notarization on BlockchainThe process of using decentralized ledger technology to certify the authenticity of a digital document and establish its proof of existence.
OHM ForkThe upgrades to OlympusDAO codebase, enabling many new coins and features on the new forked portion.
Off-ChainA transaction or entity such as a data outside of the blockchain network, ensuring more privacy as this transaction is not recorded on the ledger.
Off-Chain GovernanceA type of blockchain governance architecture that takes place outside of the blockchain, rather than being on-chain.
Off-Chain TransactionA transaction that does not occur on the blockchain and is not recorded in the distributed ledger.
Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC)A branch of the US treasury that regulates all national banks and savings associations.
Offline StorageOffline storage in crypto refers to keeping cryptographic assets such as digital currencies in a secure storage device that is not connected to the internet to reduce the risk of hacking or theft.
Offshore AccountA bank account outside of your native country or current country of residence, usually setup for personal gain or advantages.
On-Balance Volume (OBV)A technical analysis that predicts price changes by analyzing the closing prices and volume compared to the days before it.
On-ChainTransactions or activities such as mining that take place on the blockchain and are verifiable through the public ledger.
On-Chain GovernanceA decentralized framework where people in the network have a protocol for voting on future network proposals.
On-Ledger CurrencyAn on-ledger currency is a digital asset that operates on a decentralized blockchain ledger, allowing for secure and transparent recording of transactions.
One Cancels the Other Order (OCO):A type of operation/input where someone puts in two orders into an exchange. When one of the orders is filled, the second one is canceled.
Online StorageUsing online platforms, applications, or devices to store cryptocurrency for easy accessibility.
Open SourceA philosophy that is especially present in software development. Open source means that development, ideas, code, and other information is openly shared in order to benefit as many people as possible.
Open/CloseOpen/close in the context of cryptocurrency refers to the act of opening or creating an active trading position by buying or selling a particular cryptocurrency, and closing or settling the position by offsetting the original trade.
Optimistic RollupA layer 2 system where off-chain computers run the validation and record the transactions in the layer 2 system.
OptionA financial contract that gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset, such as a stock, commodity, or currency, at a predetermined price and within a specified time frame.
Oracle ManipulationUnauthorized or unethical manipulation of the information provided by oracles to a decentralized system, such as a blockchain-based smart contract, with the goal of altering the outcome of the system's operations.
OraclesIntermediaries that provide decentralized systems, such as smart contracts on blockchain networks, with access to external data and events, serving as a trusted bridge between the blockchain and the outside world.
Order BookA real-time record of all outstanding buy and sell orders for a specific asset or security, displaying the price levels and quantities of the orders.
OrphanAn Orphan is a block in a blockchain that is not part of the main chain and has no parent block, meaning it was not built on top of any previous block in the blockchain.
Orphaned BlockA block in a blockchain that is not part of the main chain, usually due to network-wide changes in the blockchain before the block was added to the main chain.
Over-CollateralizationA risk management technique in which a borrower provides collateral in an amount that is greater than the loan value to reduce the lender's risk of default.
Over-the-Counter (OTC)Financial transactions that are conducted directly between parties outside of centralized exchanges.
Over-the-Counter (OTC) TradingA type of financial transaction that occurs outside of centralized exchanges, where parties directly negotiate the terms of a trade.
OverboughtA market condition where an asset experiences a continued increase in price without a strong rationale, indicating a potential for correction.
PairThe relative value of one currency compared to another, with the base currency being quoted against the quote currency, showing how many units of the quote currency are required to purchase one unit of the base currency
Paper Trading A simulated form of investing where individuals can practice and test their strategies using hypothetical money, without incurring real-world financial risk.
Participation NodeThe Algorand platform is a type of node that participates in the consensus process of the Pure Proof of Stake (PPoS) system by validating transactions and creating blocks.
Passive IncomeA type of income earned with little to no effort on the part of the recipient, often through investments or business activities that generate a regular return.
Password ManagerA software application that securely stores and manages login credentials and other sensitive information, allowing users to easily and securely access multiple accounts with strong, unique passwords.
Paul Le RouxA former programmer, criminal mastermind, and drug lord who was known for his extensive criminal empire and involvement in illegal activities such as cybercrime, hacking, and drug trafficking.
Peer-to-Peer (P2P)A decentralized network architecture where nodes communicate directly with each other and share resources without the need for a centralized intermediary.
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) LendingA decentralized lending model where individuals can borrow and lend money directly to each other without the need for a traditional financial intermediary, facilitated by online platforms.
Pegged CurrencyA type of currency that is fixed or pegged to another stable asset or currency, such as the US dollar, to maintain a stable exchange rate and reduce volatility.
PermissionlessA system or network that allows anyone to participate or access it without the need for prior authorization or approval.
Perpetual ContractsA type of financial derivatives that have no expiry date and are designed to mimic the underlying asset's spot price, with traders able to hold a position indefinitely, provided they can meet the margin requirements.
PhishingA type of cyber attack that uses deceptive tactics to trick individuals into revealing sensitive information, such as login credentials or financial information, by posing as a trustworthy entity through email, text message, phone call, or fake websites.
Phone PhishingA type of social engineering attack where fraudsters impersonate a trustworthy entity to trick individuals into revealing sensitive information over the phone.
Physical BitcoinsTangible objects that contain the private key for accessing and spending the bitcoins stored in a corresponding digital wallet. These objects can come in the form of coins, medals, or other types of physical media, and serve as a means of securely storing and displaying one's ownership of bitcoins.
PlatformA system or a set of technologies, standards, and tools that allow the creation, distribution, and management of products, services, or digital content.
Play-to-Earn (Play2Earn)A business model in the gaming industry where players can earn rewards, such as in-game items or real-world currency, by participating in and contributing to the game. This model incentivizes players to engage more deeply with the game and its community, creating a more dynamic and rewarding experience.
Player PayoutThe amount of money or rewards that a player receives as a result of their participation in a game or competition.
Ponzi SchemeA fraudulent investment scheme where returns are paid to existing investors using the capital of new investors, rather than from actual profits earned, creating the illusion of high returns and a solid investment opportunity.
PortfolioA collection of investments, such as stocks, bonds, real estate, or other assets, held by an individual or organization, with the aim of balancing risk and reward to achieve their financial goals.
Post-MineThe creation of new coins or tokens after a blockchain network has launched and is considered a controversial practice as it can potentially dilute the value of existing tokens and be seen as centralizing the supply.
Pre-IDOA blockchain project may conduct marketing and community-building activities and offer early access to its tokens through private sales or seed rounds.
Pre-SaleOffering investors and other early partners the opportunity to invest in a cryptocurrency before the initial launch.
Prediction MarketA platform where individuals can buy and sell contracts that pay out based on the outcome of events, such as elections, sporting events, or financial market movements, allowing individuals to make predictions and profit from their insights and knowledge.
Price ImpactThe effect that a single trade or a large order has on the price of a security or a financial instrument, indicating the degree to which the market price changes as a result of the trade.
Private BlockchainA decentralized digital ledger technology with restricted access to participants, where the administrators have control over who can participate in the network, validate transactions, and maintain the ledger.
Private Key/Secret KeyA piece of information that is used to secure and encrypt data in a cryptographic system, allowing only the holder of the key to access and decrypt the encrypted information.
ProgrammabilityThe capability to write and execute code on a computer or device, allowing for automation and adaptability in system functionality.
Proof of Attendance ProtocolA system that verifies and records the presence and participation of individuals in a specific event or meeting, using cryptographic techniques and a decentralized ledger to secure and validate the attendance records.
Proof of SpacetimeSimilar to proof-of-replication, this lets the auditors know that data has been stored for as long as it has been apart of the network.
Proof of StakeA blockchain mechanism that requires users to stake, or lock away for a certain amount of time, an amount of native tokens in order to receive mining power.
Proof of WorkA blockchain system where miners solve computationally intensive programs in order to validate transactions and create new blocks.
Proof-of-BurnA consensus mechanism in blockchain technology where a user demonstrates their commitment to a network by permanently destroying or "burning" some of their own cryptocurrency as proof of their investment and intention to participate in the network.
Proof-of-Developer (PoD)A verification method used in blockchain technology to prove the identity and expertise of a developer, ensuring that only qualified and credible individuals are able to contribute to the network, thereby increasing the security and trust in the ecosystem.
Proof-of-DonationA consensus mechanism in blockchain technology where a user shows support for a project by making a charitable donation, demonstrating their commitment and belief in the project's success, and potentially earning rewards in the form of tokens or other incentives.
Public SaleThe initial selling stage of an asset to the public before it is listed on cryptocurrency exchanges.
Public-Key CryptographyRSA algorithm is a public key cryptography system used for sending secure information on unsecure networks
Public-Key InfrastructureA framework for encrypting, managing, and granting digital certificates to encrypt data and allow access to those authorized.
Pump and Dump (P&D)A scam where the actors artificially inflate the price of an asset just to sell their significant portions at the top of the market cap.
Put OptionA contract that allows the owner the opportunity to sell an asset at a certain price within a certain time period.
QR CodeA barcode like label that can be read by machines and contain information or links to websites. Ex. Coinbase’s QR code superbowl add crashed the site with over 20,000,000 visitors in a single minute.
Rage-quitIn trading, rage quitting refers to the impulsive and emotional act of selling one's assets due to frustration or disappointment with their performance, often resulting in significant losses.
Raiden NetworkA layer built onto the Ethereum blockchain hoping to offer immediate, scalable, and low fees for transactions on the blockchain.
RankA list of cryptocurrencies ordered by some kind of filter such as marketcap, volume, liquidity etc.
RansomwareA type of malicious software that offers to remove itself and the virus’s on the victim’s machine if they pay an amount of money.
Rebase TokenA cryptocurrency that maintains a certain price target by adjusting the total amount of tokens (total supply) including tokens held by investors.
Regional/Local/Community CurrenciesDifferent geographic and cultural ranges of currencies exclusive to those areas only.
RegulatedThe implementation of rules and structure around an activity or asset by an overhead organization or government.
Relative Strength Index (RSI)A stock or cryptocurrency analysis that measures the speed of price changes of a stock.
Relay ChainA relay chain is a blockchain that acts as a hub for communication and data transfer between multiple independent chains, allowing them to interact with each other.
Relay NodesRelay nodes authenticate and communicate between block-producing nodes, preserving the integrity of the blockchain even if a portion of nodes are hacked.
Repair MinersRepair miners are responsible for fixing problems on the blockchain and making sure it is running smoothly. They do this by checking the transactions that have been made and making sure they are correct and valid. If they find any problems, they work to fix them and make sure the blockchain is up-to-date and accurate.
Replay AttackAlso known as Man-in-the-middle attacks, a replay attack occurs when hackers intercept communications between two parties and insert themselves in the middle, altering or preventing the communication.
Replicated LedgerAn un-alterable copy of the records of a blockchain that are distributed to everyone and continuously updated, eliminating the risk of a single point of failure.
Revenue Participation TokensA system where users invest with a revenue token and then receive a different token when it comes time to cash out on revenue token dividends.
Reverse IndicatorA person or party that is typically wrong when making predictions on asset’s prices. One will typically do the reverse of what they recommend.
Ring CT (Confidential Transactions)Short for Ring Confidential Transactions, this is the process that anonymizes the transactions on the Monero network.
Ring MinersSimilar to a relay node, ring miners verify and facilitate transactions on the Loopring Protocol
RoadmapRoadmaps are a diagram that outlines the major plans and goals of a project or organization and also provides a timeline to achieve them.
Roger VerOne of the more vocal bitcoin proponents since the early 2010’s. His attitude toward Bitcoin has earned him the nickname “Bitcoin Jesus”.
S&P 500The S&P 500, or the Standard and Poor’s 500, is a stock market index that reflects a list of 500 publicly traded firms in the United States and their market performance.
Satoshi (SATS)A Satoshi is the smallest denomination of Bitcoin possible, named after it's creator, Satoshi Nakamoto.
Scaling ProblemThe scaling problem exposes the limitations within a blockchain, as well as the inability to achieve rapid and low-cost transactions.
ScamcoinScamcoins are coins that were established by their respective developers as a method to "Get rich quick"
Scholarship / ScholarWithin the Axie Infinity universe, there exists a practice known as a scholarship in which managers loan their free Axies to novice players (scholars) and passively earn through the rewards achieved in battle.
ScriptCrafted on a computer, a script is a collection of commands that a software or scripting language executes.
ScryptA proof-of-work (PoW) algorithm that is utilized in Bitcoin mining as an alternative to SHA-256. Scrypt mining turns to dependence on memory rather than raw CPU power, in an attempt to reduce the advantage that ASICs have.
Second-Layer SolutionsA collection of technologies built on the foundation of a public blockchain to improve both it’s efficiency and scalability, particularly within microtransactions and actions.
Secondary MarketA location where investors or traders may purchase and/or sell various types of owned assets or securities.
Secure ElementA type of hardware chip that can execute a certain number of programs or applications.
Secure Multi-Party Computation (SMPC)A cryptographic subfield that permits parties the ability to compute a function whilst maintaining discrepancy on input(s).
Securities and Exchange CommisionAn independent federal agency in control of enforcing federal securities laws, establishing securities rules, and regulating the securities sector within the United States.
Security“Security” refers to the concept of a fungible and marketable financial instrument, as well as carrying some type of monetary value.
Security Token OfferingA security token offering (STO) represents the public offering of the sale of tokenized digital securities and assets.
Seed PhraseWhen generating keys for a deterministic wallet, there is a single beginning point referred to as the seed phrase.
Segregated WitnessThis Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) was aimed at remedying the malleability within Bitcoin transactions.
Selfish MiningThe process in which a miner discovers and mines a new block to themselves but does not share this information with other miners.
Sell WallThe proposal of a planned large limit order that is both placed and designed to sell when a cryptocurrency obtains a specified value.
Semantic WebThe primary goal behind the construction of the Semantic Web is to give computers the ability to alter data on our behalf.
SettlementOn an order-book based DEX, Settlement refers to the process through which a user executes limit or market orders.
TaintThe historical association between a particular cryptocurrency and a specific, undesirable event or origin, affecting its perceived value or trustworthiness.
TangleA decentralized, distributed ledger technology used for transactions on the IOTA blockchain, which uses a directed acyclic graph data structure instead of traditional blockchain architecture.
TaprootA specific type of script that allows for greater privacy and efficiency in transactions by combining multiple inputs and outputs into one, while still allowing for the ability to verify and enforce the individual conditions contained within.
US Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC)US government agency that enforces economic sanctions and trade restrictions against targeted foreign countries, organizations, and individuals to advance US foreign policy and national security objectives.
UTC TimeA standardized time used worldwide as a reference for timekeeping and as the basis for legal time regulation, standardized as an international time scale.
UnbankedPoor residents, people without documentation, or people lacking internet access who do not have access to traditional banking services, but can take advantage of cryptocurrency to store and transfer value.
UnconfirmedA term used to describe a transaction that has been broadcasted to the network but has not yet been added to a block. This means that the transaction is pending and has not yet been included in the blockchain. The transaction is not irreversible until its status changes to confirmed.
Uni TokenThe native token of Uniswap, one of the largest decentralized cryptocurrency exchanges in all of crypto.
United States House Committee on Financial ServicesThe United States House Committee on Financial Services is a congressional committee of the United States House of Representatives. It has jurisdiction over all matters related to the economy, insurance, housing, banking, securities, and financial services. The committee has jurisdiction over the oversight of the Reserve Banks, the Federal Reserve System, monetary policy, deposit insurance, export credit, and the regulation of securities exchanges. Additionally, the committee has jurisdiction over cryptocurrency, blockchain, and other financial technology.
Unpermissioned LedgerA decentralized digital ledger without a central authority or administrator, where transactions are validated through consensus among participants.
Unrealized Profit & LossA term used to describe the difference between the current market value of an asset and the cost at which it was purchased, which is considered a paper gain or loss until the asset is actually sold.
UnregulatedA system, market, or industry that operates without government or legal controls, allowing for free competition and limited interference.
Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO)A record of a blockchain transaction that has not been spent and is available as input for creating new transactions.
Unstoppable DomainsA blockchain domain registrar that allows users to create and manage human-readable, decentralized domain names that can be used for decentralized websites and cryptocurrency payments.
Use CaseA description of how a user interacts with a system, detailing steps taken to achieve a specific goal or task and providing context for the functionality being developed.
User Interface (UI)The part of a software application that the user interacts with, including graphical elements like buttons, text fields, and visual representations of information and data.
ValidatorThe nodes on a proof-of-stake blockchain validate transactions for rewards. Ex: The Ethereum blockchain is moving to a proof-of-stake system, run by validators that have staked 32 ETH.
Vanity AddressA custom-made or personalized cryptocurrency address that contains a desired sequence of characters, usually for branding purposes.
VaporwareA cryptocurrency, software, or other project that is announced but is never released or finished. Ex: Xenix operating system from microsoft was never released, as it became obsolete before it was able to launch
Venture CapitalA form of private equity financing provided by investors to startups or early-stage companies with high growth potential in exchange for equity ownership.
Verification codeA security mechanism used to verify the authenticity of a user or transaction by requiring the input of a unique, one-time generated code, typically sent via email or SMS, in addition to a password.
Vesting PeriodA specified time during which an employee or a grant recipient must hold onto assets or stocks before they become fully entitled to them, typically as part of a compensation or incentive package.
Virgin BitcoinNewly minted bitcoins that have not yet been spent or traded and therefore have no transaction history.
Virtual Automated Market Makers (VAMMs)Decentralized financial protocols that use algorithms to facilitate automated liquidity provision and price discovery for tokens on decentralized exchanges (DEXs).
Virtual Private Network (VPN)A type of technology that creates a private, secure internet connection through a regular internet connection. An example would be Express VPN, one of the largest VPN companies in the world and a partner of CoinScan
Virtual Reality (VR)A type of software that utilizes an over-the-eyes headset in order to transport the users into the virtual world and is far more immersive than traditional games or software. Oculus Rift was one of the first high-quality, virtual reality headsets.
VirusSoftware unintentionally downloaded on the internet or uploaded from a physical storage device that can have an arsenal of malicious abilities designed to extort or harm the end user.
Vitalik ButerinVitalik Buterin is a Russian-Canadian programmer, best known as the co-founder and creator of Ethereum, a decentralized computer network and cryptocurrency. He is also the co-founder of Bitcoin Magazine and a frequent commentator and writer on blockchain technology, cryptography, and cryptocurrency.
Volatility A measure of how much the price of an asset moves up or down during a specific window of time. Crypto is considered a volatile asset compared to other traditionally traded assets.
WalletA digital currency storage option where the owner can store, trade, and transfer cryptocurrencies and other digital assets such as NFTs. Wallets can be hot (online) or cold (offline) as well depending on usage and security preferences.
Wallstreetbets (WSB)Wallstreetbets is an online forum on Reddit where investors of all ages and experience levels come together to discuss and share ideas about investing in the stock market. It's like a virtual stock market 'hangout' where people can learn from one another and connect with other investors. It's different than other traditional stock trading forums because it encourages users to take risks, be creative, and think outside of the box.
WannaCry RansomwareWannaCry is a type of malicious software (malware) that encrypts the files on an infected computer, making them inaccessible to the user. The attackers then demand a ransom payment, typically in the form of cryptocurrency, in exchange for the decryption key that would allow the victim to regain access to their files. WannaCry is considered one of the largest ransomware attacks in history, as it affected hundreds of thousands of computers in over 150 countries in May 2017.
Wash TradeA tactic done to manipulate the market or a specific token by trading the same asset multiple times between parties in order to increase the trading volume statistic artificially.
Watchdog OrganizationAn organization that monitors a specific industry or activity in order to promote transparency and accountability for the general public.
Weak HandsAn investor that sells his portion of shares or tokens, typically at a loss, when the price of an asset changes rather quickly. A term used to describe someone who panic sells or can not hold an asset long term.
Web 1.0A term to describe the first years and iterations of the internet when it was first introduced to the world.
Web 2.0An evolution of the internet from being largely read-only to becoming interactive and supporting more user generated content.
Web 3.0The blossoming future of the internet that combines many web 2.0 elements with machine learning, artificial intelligence, blockchain technologies, and decentralization.
Web3 FoundationA foundation that was created by Gavin Wood in order to fund new web 3.0 technologies and applications.
WebSocketWebSockets is a protocol for bi-directional, real-time communication between a client and a server over the web, allowing for fast, low-latency communication.
WeiThe smallest denomination of Ether used on the Ethereum Blockchain Ex: One Ether is worth 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 or 10^18 wei.
WhaleAn investor who has a very large portion of an asset’s shares. Ex: Vitalik Buterin is an Ethereum whale and owns over 300,000 ETH
When LamboA phrase used to ask when or joke about the price of an asset, usually a micro-cap memecoin, exponentially rising in value and providing the investor with massive gains so they can purchase an expensive car.
When MoonSimilar to When Lambo, when moon is a phrase used to joke about the price of an asset skyrocketing. Ex: After joking about it for months, Jim’s holdings went to the moon when Shib pumped 30x in one hour.
White Hat Computer HackerA hacker employed by the government or private corporations to try and hack current software and programs to find vulnerabilities before malicious hackers find them and exploit them.
White LabelA deploy-ready, customizable piece of software or other blockchain infrastructure that is purchased or shared from another party.
WhitelistA list of individuals or crypto wallet addresses that have been approved for the initial launch of a cryptocurrency token, NFT project, presale or other activity that is not yet open to the general public.
WhitepaperA technical, written document including a roadmap discussing the concept, use, and plans for growth of a cryptocurrency token.
Winding DownThe action of unwrapping tokens from their current state down to the original form, for example unwrapping wrapped bitcoin (WBTC) back into normal bitcoin (BTC).
x86 Virtual Machinex86 virtual machines (VM) are used to run nodes of blockchain networks, which are responsible for verifying and validating transactions and maintaining the integrity of the blockchain. Running a node on an x86 VM provides increased security and control as the node operates in a virtualized environment isolated from the host machine.
YTDYTD stands for "Year to Date" and is used to describe the performance of an investment, security or asset class over the period of the current year, starting from the beginning of the year to the present day.
Yield FarmingYield farming is a decentralized finance (DeFi) strategy that involves depositing funds into liquidity pools to earn rewards, typically in the form of governance tokens or other cryptocurrencies. Yield farming leverages the power of automated market making (AMM) protocols to generate passive income for investors.
Zero Confirmation TransactionA zero confirmation transaction is a transaction on a blockchain network that has not yet been confirmed by the network's nodes but is accepted immediately by merchants or exchanges due to its perceived low risk.
Zero Knowledge ProofZero Knowledge Proof (ZKP) is a cryptographic concept that enables one party to prove to another that they know a specific piece of information without revealing the information itself, using complex mathematical algorithms to generate and verify proofs.
Zero Knowledge RollupA blockchain scaling solution that uses zero knowledge proofs to aggregate and validate many off-chain transactions while maintaining the security guarantees of the underlying blockchain.