coinscan

CoinScan's Crypto Glossary: Crypto Guides & Terms

The ultimate crypto glossary for understanding crypto terms easily.

Abstract

A brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, conference proceeding, or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject or discipline, and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose.

A

A

Accumulation/Distribution Indicator

A technical analysis tool that measures the flow of money into or out of an asset by analyzing changes in price and volume.

A

Adam Back

A British cryptographer known for his work on the Bitcoin white-paper and development of Hashcash, the mining function of Bitcoin.

A

Adaptive State Sharding

A scaling solution in blockchain technology that divides the network into multiple smaller and dynamic partitions (shards) to improve transaction processing speed and scalability while maintaining security and decentralization.

A

Address

In cryptocurrency, is a string of characters that represents a public wallet.

A

Adoption Curve

An indicator which tracks the rate of adoption of a product or technology

A

Air Gap

A physical separation of a computer or network from other systems that ensures its protection by making data inaccessible and impervious to infections or corruptions.

A

AirDrop

Marketing strategy used in the cryptocurrency world where tokens or coins are distributed for free to a large number of users to increase their visibility and usage.

A

Airnode

An infrastructure platform that enables developers to easily create, manage and monetize APIs by providing a seamless connection between APIs and the decentralized finance ecosystem.

A

Algorithm

A repeatable process and set of rules to be carried out to solve an operation.

A

Algorithmic Market Operations (AMOs)

The use of algorithms to automate and optimize the execution of trading and investment strategies in financial markets.

A

Algorithmic Stablecoin

A type of cryptocurrency that uses algorithms to maintain its stable value relative to a pegged asset, such as the US dollar, through automatic adjustments in supply and demand

A

Algorithmic Trading

The use of computer programs and algorithms to automatically execute trades in financial markets based on mathematical models and rules.

A

All-Time-High (ATH)

The highest recorded price ever achieved by a particular asset or market, typically used to refer to the peak of a cryptocurrency price.

A

All-Time-Low (ATL)

The lowest recorded price ever achieved by a particular asset or market, typically used to refer to the bottom of a cryptocurrency price.

A

Allocation

Allocation refers to the process of distributing a portion of equity or tokens to a particular portfolio, wallet, community, team, or other entity, with the aim of achieving specific goals and objectives.

A

Alphanumeric

A combination of alphabetic and numeric characters, often used for identification, labeling, or coding purposes.

A

Altcoin

An altcoin is any cryptocurrency other than Bitcoin, often created as a variant or fork of the original Bitcoin software with different features or algorithms.

A

Altcoin Trader

An individual or entity engaged in buying and selling alternative cryptocurrencies (altcoins) with the aim of making a profit.

A

Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3)

A scalable, high-speed, web-based cloud storage service provided by Amazon Web Services (AWS) for storing and retrieving data from anywhere on the web.

A

AMLD5

The Fifth Anti-Money Laundering Directive, which is a set of regulations aimed at preventing money laundering and terrorist financing by establishing stricter requirements for customer due diligence.

A

Anarcho-Capitalism

A political philosophy and economic theory that advocates for the abolition of the state and the establishment of a society based on the principles of voluntary exchange, private property rights, and free markets.

A

Angel Investor

A high-net-worth individual who provides capital for startups or small businesses, often in exchange for ownership equity or convertible debt, with the intention of earning a financial return.

A

Annual Percentage Rate (APR)

A standardized representation of the cost of borrowing money, expressed as a yearly rate, that takes into account not only the interest rate but also other fees and charges associated with a loan.

A

Annual Percentage Yield (APY)

A standardized calculation of the interest earned on a deposit account, expressed as a yearly rate, that takes into account the effect of compounding.

A

Anonymous

A state or quality of being unknown or unacknowledged, often used to describe individuals who participate in a social or political activity without revealing their identity.

A

Anti-Fragile

A concept introduced by Nassim Nicholas Taleb in his book "Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder," which refers to systems or entities that not only withstand stressors and shocks, but actually benefit from and grow stronger as a result of them.

A

Anti-malware

Software specifically designed to detect, prevent, and remove malicious software (malware) such as viruses, spyware, Trojans, and other forms of harmful code from a computer or network.

A

Anti-Money Laundering (AML)

Refers to a set of laws, regulations, and procedures designed to prevent illegal money transfers and to identify and track the source of funds in order to combat money laundering, the financing of terrorism, and other financial crimes.

A

Antivirus

A type of software designed to detect, prevent, and remove malicious software (malware) such as viruses, Trojans, and other forms of harmful code from a computer or network.

A

Apeing

Apeing is a cryptocurrency slang term that refers to buying into a token without doing too much research.

A

Application Programming Interface (API)

An API is a set of definitions and protocols for building and integrating application software.

A

Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC)

An ASIC is a device whose sole purpose is to be used to mine cryptocurrencies

A

Arbitrage

Arbitrage in markets is a trading technique where an asset is purchased in one and is sold in another nearly simultaneously for profit due to price differences and market fluctuations.

A

Aroon Indicator

The Aroon indicator is used to identify trend changes in the price of an asset as well as the strength of the trend.

A

Ashdraked

Getting Ashdraked is losing everything in a single trade or investment.

A

ASIC- Resistance

ASIC- Resistant blockchains or algorithms are designed specifically to not give an advantage to ASIC computation over consumer grade hardware

A

Ask Price

The ask price is the price given to an asset by the assets seller, or what they will sell it for.

A

Asset-Backed Tokens

Asset-Backed Tokens are digital representations of value of physical assets and are pegged to the same price.

A

Assets Under Management

Assets Under Management (AUM) refers to the total market value of assets belonging to one entity that are managed by another on their behalf.

A

Astroturfing

The process of building a deceitful grassroots community behind a product, company, or project.

A

Asynchronous Communication

Asynchronous Communication refers to a modular system where a network can operate autonomously while each module operates independently.

A

Atomic Dex

An AtomicDex is the combination of a crypto wallet and decentralized exchange in the form of an application on desktop, mobile device, or on the web.

A

Atomic Swap

An atomic swap occurs when cryptocurrency is transferred without the use of an exchange or intermediary between one party to another.

A

Attestation Ledger

An attestation ledger is an account book which is designed to provide evidence of transactions and prove authenticity.

A

Audit

An independent examination and assessment of an organization's financial records, operations, and systems to verify the accuracy and validity of its financial reporting, to identify any potential weaknesses or risks.

A

Augmented Reality (AR)

A technology that enhances the real-world environment by overlaying digital information, such as images, sounds, or videos, in real-time on top of a user's physical surroundings, typically through a smartphone or tablet camera or a specialized AR headset.

A

Authentication

Authentication is the process of verifying validity or identity using proofs of ownership.

A

Automated Market Maker (AMM)

An AMM is a computer program that automates the process of providing liquidity to remove the necessity for intermediaries in the trading of cryptocurrencies on a decentralized exchange (DEX).

A

Average Directional Index (ADX)

The ADX is a technical indicator that measures the strength of a market trend by using moving averages of prices and is represented by a score of 1-100 with 100 being a strong end.

A

Bag

A popular phrase commonly used amongst crypto enthusiasts that refers to a large amount of a specific token or coin one owns as part of their portfolio or a collection of all crypto assets in their portfolio.

B

Bag Holder

Term for a cryptocurrency investor who holds onto a specific asset regardless of its performance. Often used for those who bought during an overbought phase and continue to hold despite falling value, hoping for a rebound that may be unlikely.

B

Baking

Refers to the process of participating in the consensus mechanism of a blockchain network. This involves validating transactions and creating new blocks, and in return, the baker is rewarded with a portion of the network's rewards or transaction fees.

B

BandWidth

The maximum amount of data that can be transmitted over a network in a given amount of time.

B

Bank for International Settlements

An international organization that serves as a bank for central banks, promoting global monetary and financial stability and acting as a forum for cooperation on banking and financial matters.

B

Banking as a Service (BAAS)

A model of offering banking services and infrastructure through APIs and platforms, allowing other companies to offer financial products to their customers under their own brand.

B

Banking Secrecy Act (BSA)

U.S. law mandating financial institutions to aid in detecting and preventing money laundering. Requires record-keeping, reporting of suspicious activity, and compliance with government requests to combat illicit financial transactions.

B

Basket

A portfolio of multiple cryptocurrencies or digital assets combined into a single investment, allowing investors to diversify their holdings and potentially reduce risk.

B

Batch Auctions

The sale of a large quantity of digital assets, such as tokens, in a single transaction, allowing for efficient and transparent pricing and distribution of the assets among buyers.

B

Beacon Chain

It is a blockchain that coordinates shard chains, manages staking and the registry of validators in a Proof-of-Stake cryptocurrency, such as Ethereum 2.0.

B

Bear

A pessimistic individual or investor, not necessarily familiar with crypto investing, but believes the value of a specific crypto asset or the general crypto market will decline over a prolonged period.

B

Bear Trap

When an individual or a group which holds a substantial amount of a cryptocurrency supply sells the tokens at an instant or almost immediately, creating fear amongst other investors, leading them to think, there will be a continuous drop in value.

B

Bear Whale

A bear whale is a retail or institutional cryptocurrency trader who has a significant amount of capital or a sizable holdings of a particular cryptocurrency who is bearish on a position.

B

Benchmark

A standard that functions as a point of reference which aims to compare the performance analysis of various assets.

B

Benchmark Index

A benchmark index is a standard used to evaluate a fund’s performance over time.

B

BEP-721

BEP-721 is a BNB Smart Chain (BSC) token standard that allows for the creation of non-fungible tokens (NFTs).

B

BEP-95

BEP-95 is a Binance Evolution Proposal that introduces a real-time burning mechanism to BNB Smart Chain (BSC). It’s been introduced to make BNB’s tokenomics even more dynamic and further decentralize the network.

B

BEP20

BEP-20 is a token interface standard for creating token contracts on BSC. BSC is the blockchain component of the BNB Chain that provides its users with a smart contract facility and is a platform for dApp development.

B

Beta

Second stage of software development cycle following alpha. Software has major features and functions, but requires further testing for efficiency, usability, and security improvements.

B

Bid Price

The highest price that a buyer is willing to pay for an asset, commodity, security or contract.

B

Bid/Ask Spread

Difference between maximum bid price (buyers' offer) and minimum ask price (sellers' request) for an asset. Reflects the gap between what buyers are willing to pay and what sellers are willing to accept in a transaction.

B

Big Tech

Also known as the Tech Giants, is a term that refers to the most dominant and largest technology companies in their respective sectors. Their products and services are used globally and have become heavily relied upon by businesses and individuals.

B

Binance Chain Evolution Proposal (BEP)

BNB Chain defines its own set of standards for token issuance, management, and implementation known as BEP (BNB Evolution Proposals). BEPs are token management rules and pre-defined criteria for launching on-chain assets on BNB Chain.

B

Binance Chain Tokenization Standard BEP-2

A technical standard on the Binance Smart Chain that facilitates the creation of fungible tokens for use as a medium of exchange.

B

Binance Labs

Binance Labs is a social impact fund looking to invest in and empower blockchain and cryptocurrency entrepreneurs, projects, and communities

B

Binance Launchpad

A unique platform that allows users to have first-look access to promising new crypto tokens from various projects hosted by Binance.

B

Binary Code

A system by which numbers, letters and other information are represented using only two symbols, or binary digits. The binary definition to a computer is a 1s and 0s code arranged in ways that the computer can read, understand, and act upon.

B

Bit

The most basic unit of data in telecommunications and computing that a computer can process and store. A bit is always in one of two physical states, similar to an on/off light switch. The state is represented by a single binary value, usually a 0 or 1.

B

Bit licenses

Business licenses for virtual currency activities issued by NYSDFS, regulating companies or individuals engaged in Virtual Currency Business Activity, governed by the BitLicense regulations.

B

Bitcoin ATM

Kiosks that allow a person to purchase or sell Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies by using cash or debit card. It acts as a physical Bitcoin exchange.

B

Bitcoin Dominance

A ratio of Bitcoin's market cap compared to the cumulative market cap of all cryptocurrencies.

B

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal

Formal document proposing ideas, changes, and improvements to the Bitcoin protocol, covering consensus rules, standards, and development processes.

B

Bitcoin Pizza

It denotes the first real world transaction, where two pizzas were purchased for 10,000 Bitcoins in Jacksonville, Florida back in 2010.

B

Bitcoin Talk

A public forum for the general discussion about the Bitcoin ecosystem and Blockchain technology.

B

Bitcoiner

A Bitcoiner is a person who actively engages in activities related to Bitcoin. This includes buying and HODLing Bitcoin, while also preaching the merits of the technology.

B

Bitpay

BitPay is a bitcoin payment service provider headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. It is a payment gateway that offers merchants the availability to accept funds using bitcoin.

B

Bits

In the context of cryptocurrencies, A Bit is the smallest unit, or subdivision, of Bitcoin (BTC).

B

Bitstream

A binary sequence that comprises a sequence of bits, which includes the description of the hardware logic, routing, and initial values for both registers and on-chip memory.

B

Black Hat Hacker

A black hat hacker is a person who unauthorizedly attempts to find computer security vulnerabilities and exploit them for personal financial gain or other malicious reasons.

B

Black Swan Event

A black swan is an unpredictable event that is beyond what is normally expected of a situation and has potentially severe consequences.

B

Block

Data structures within the blockchain database, where transaction data in a cryptocurrency blockchain are permanently recorded

B

Block Explorer

A tool that provides detailed analytics about a blockchain network since its first ever recorded transactions also known as the genesis block.

B

Block Height

The number of blocks that were hashed and confirmed in the entire history of a particular blockchain network - from the genesis block (or block zero) until the most recent one.

B

Block Producer

A decentralized entity that exists on delegated proof-of-stake (DPoS) blockchains to create, process and verify a block of transactions on the network.

B

Block Reward

Block reward refers to the cryptocurrency rewarded to a miner when they successfully validate a new block.

B

Block Size

Refers to the maximum amount of transactions data a block can contain, measured in bytes. The largest amount of data a block can hold is called the block size limit.

B

Block Time

Block time is the measure of the time it takes miners or validators within a network to verify transactions within one block and produce a new block in that blockchain.

B

Block Trade

A block trade is a large, privately negotiated securities transaction arranged away from public markets to lessen the effect on the security's price.

B

Blockchain

A digitally distributed database or ledger that is shared among the nodes of a computer network. As a database, a blockchain stores information electronically in digital format.

B

Blockchain 1.0

The first generation of the Blockchain technology, This version is the simplest form of a decentralized ledger for recording transactions and storing the data across several computers.

B

Blockchain 2.0

Enhanced protocol expanding on the capabilities of blockchain 1.0. Introduces decentralization through smart contracts, improved security, and transparency. Ethereum, pioneered by Vitalik Buterin four years after Bitcoin, exemplifies these advancements.

B

Blockchain 3.0

Advancement beyond Blockchain 2.0, refining technology to address industry issues and enable mainstream adoption. Utilizes a directed acyclic graph (DAG) data structure, ensuring unidirectional flow of information and eliminating block times.

B

Blockchain enabled smart contract locks

A smart lock mechanism, which can only operate when a user signs a smart contract through an authorized private key.

B

Blockchain Explorer

A software that allows for the search of information on the blockchain, such as blocks, transactions, and blockchain network metrics (e.g., average transaction fees, hashrates, block size, block difficulty).

B

Blockchain transmission protocol (BTP)

A standard that renders heterogeneous blockchains interoperable, including blockchains that entail completely different consensus models and algorithms.

B

Blockchain Trilemma

The idea that it is hard for blockchains to achieve optimal levels of scalability, decentralization and security simultaneously. Increasing one usually leads to a weakening of another.

B

Bollinger Band

Bollinger Bands are simply highly technical tools that give traders an idea of which direction an asset price is moving.

B

Bonding Curve

The core concept of a bonding curve is, it is a mathematical curve that depicts the relationship between token supply and price. The price of a token is determined by its supply. The more tokens that have been distributed, the higher the price.

B

Bots

Automated software applications that perform specific tasks based on pre-set instructions. They imitate or replace human behavior, executing repetitive tasks quickly and precisely, with little human intervention.

B

Bounty

A reward initiated by a group or individual to incentivize certain work, behavior, or development. For instance, referral programs may be considered a type of bounty.

B

Brave Browser

Brave Browser is a privacy focused browser, by default, Brave blocks all ads, and all trackers, from every website visited. One can easily import bookmarks and other settings from your old browser.

B

BRC20

BRC20 is an experimental Bitcoin token standard, using Ordinals and Inscriptions for token management. Caution is advised due to its speculative and experimental nature.

B

Breaking

Also known as hard fork, refers to a radical change to the protocol of a blockchain network that effectively results in two branches, one that follows the previous protocol and one that follows the new version.

B

Brian Armstrong

Brian Armstrong is the chief executive of Coinbase, the largest cryptocurrency exchange in the United States.

B

Bridges

Protocols linking distinct blockchains, facilitating interactions and enabling seamless transfer of cryptocurrencies between them. They eliminate the need for intermediaries, empowering crypto holders with direct cross-chain capabilities.

B

Browser Extension

A plugin for an internet browser that adds additional features. In the context of cryptocurrencies, a crypto browser extension is a type of software that adds cryptocurrency-related tools and features to a web browser.

B

Brute Force Attack

When an attacker submits many passwords or passphrases with the hope of eventually guessing correctly and accessing the target account or profile.

B

Bubble

Economic cycle of rapid market value escalation, especially in asset prices, followed by a sharp decline or crash known as a "bubble burst."

B

Bug Bounty

Monetary reward offered to ethical hackers who find and report vulnerabilities or bugs in computer code to application developers, fostering security and preventing unintended consequences.

B

Bug Exploit

Unauthorized utilization of system vulnerabilities through programs, data blocks, or command sets to gain profit, manipulate data, or compromise system integrity. It takes advantage of system weaknesses to achieve specific goals.

B

Bull

An optimistic trader or investor who thinks the market, a specific security, or an asset is poised to rise. Investors who adopt a bull approach purchase assets under the assumption that they can sell them later at a higher price.

B

Bull Trap

Also called the 'Dead cat bounce' or 'suckers rally' It's a situation where a trader buys an asset believing its price will continue to rise only to see it fall sharply after reaching a new high.

B

Buy The Dip (BTD)

A popular investment strategy that involves purchasing an asset, typically a stock or cryptocurrency, when its price has experienced a short-term drop in anticipation of the price recovering and potentially rising again.

B

Buy Wall

A large limit buy order or a series of buy orders placed at the same price point on a cryptocurrency exchange, creating a barrier or "wall" of buying pressure that can affect the price of a particular cryptocurrency.

B

Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT)

A property of distributed systems that enables them to continue operating and reaching consensus even when some nodes in the network are faulty or malicious.

B

Byzantine General Problem

A challenge in distributed computing where a group of nodes must reach a consensus even when some nodes may be unreliable and potentially malicious.

B

Byzantium Fork

A planned software update to the Ethereum blockchain in 2017 that implemented several new features and improvements.

B

C++

An extension of the C programming language, allowing for cross-platform capabilities and development

C

Call Options

Call options are investment contracts that give the option buyer the right to buy an underlying asset, like a stock, at a specified price called the strike price within a certain period.

C

Candlesticks

Candlestick charts are a type of financial chart used to display the price movements of a security, currency, or commodity. Each "candlestick" typically represents the open, high, low, and close prices for a given time period (e.g. one day).

C

Capital

Financial capital is a way to describe the money and other resources that people and businesses use to make things happen.

C

Capital Efficiency

Capital efficiency refers to the way a business or organization uses its resources, such as money, time, and people, to get the most out of them.

C

Capital Fund

A capital fund is like a big piggy bank where people or organizations put money together to use for a specific purpose.

C

Capitulation

In finance, capitulation is when people who are trying to make money in the stock market or other investments, give up because they have lost a lot of money.

C

Casascius Coin

A Casascius Coin is a type of physical coin that is made to hold a small amount of digital currency, like Bitcoin.

C

Casey Rodarmor

Casey Rodarmor is an American developer and blockchain innovator recognized for the creation of the Ordinals and Runes protocols.

C

Cash

Cash is physical currency or coins that can be used to make purchases or transactions.

C

Cathie Wood

Cathie Wood is a well-known investment professional and the founder and CEO of Ark Invest, an investment management company that specializes in disruptive innovation and thematic investing.

C

CeDeFi

CeDeFi, which stands for Centralized Decentralized Finance, is a term used to describe financial systems that combine elements of both centralized and decentralized finance.

C

Censorship

Censorship is when someone in charge, like a leader or the government decides that certain information, pictures, or words should not be shown or shared.

C

Censorship Resistance

Censorship Resistance blockchains are immutable and ensure that all transactions on the network cannot be altered.

C

Central Bank

The Central Bank's goal is to evolve national economies, changing interest rates to spur or balance growth, and hold other country’s foreign exchange reserves for backing liabilities and shaping monetary policy.

C

Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC)

A central bank digital currency (CBDC) is like digital money that is made and controlled by the central bank, like the boss of all the banks in a country.

C

Central Ledger

A central ledger is a type of electronic database that serves as a central repository for storing and managing financial or other types of transactional data.

C

Central Processing Unit

Primary computer component executing instructions and processing data. Often referred to as the "brain" of a computer, it performs the majority of computations within the system.

C

Centralization

Centralization is an organizational structure where the process in which activities involving planning and decision-making within an organization lie under a single authority.

C

Centralized Exchange (CEX)

A cryptocurrency marketplaces where trading is facilitated between users by an order book maintained by aggregated order systems where the custody of deposited funds on the exchange is taken over by the company.

C

Certificate of Deposit (CD)

A product offered by financial institutions that provide interest rate premiums in exchange for a lump-sum deposit that cannot be withdrawn for a specified amount of time.

C

Chain Reorganization

The process where a node will deactivate the blocks in its longest old chain to add the latest blocks that are the elements of the new longest chain.

C

Chain Split

A software fork, when one cryptocurrency splits into multiple independent projects.

C

Change

The number of coins sent back to an individual after they use their unspent outputs to initiate a transaction, this only relates to cryptocurrencies that use the UTXO model.

C

Change Address

Address used to receive the remaining balance from a transaction when the amount of cryptocurrency in the user's wallet exceeds the required transaction amount.

C

Changpeng Zhao (CZ)

A Chinese-Canadian businessman and entrepreneur. He is the founder and CEO of Binance, one of the largest cryptocurrency exchanges in the world.

C

Chargeback

A charge that is returned to a payment card or account after a customer successfully disputes an item or transaction they were charged.

C

Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME)

A financial marketplace where people buy and sell contracts that are based on underlying assets such as currencies, commodities, bonds, and stock indices.

C

Cipher

An algorithm that is used to encrypt or decrypt information in cryptography.

C

Ciphertext

The resulting text after the use of an algorithm on the plain text. It is basically the scrambled or encoded version of a message produced by a cipher.

C

Circulating Supply

Tradable amount of a cryptocurrency available on the market, excluding coins held by the team, locked, burned, or subject to other restrictions. Represents coins in the hands of the public and excludes restricted portions.

C

Client

A piece of software, hardware, or individual that connects to the network in a peer-to-peer environment.

C

Close

The end of a trading period, typically a day, during which the last traded price is recorded.

C

Cloud

Cloud computing is when we use the internet to access a group of remote servers (computers) to store, manage and process data, instead of using a single computer or device.

C

Cloud mining

Where individuals can rent part of the hash power from large-scale crypto mining companies, this is a form of credit for the mining company's profits.

C

Co-Signer

A participant in a multi-signature cryptocurrency wallet.

C

Code

Programming code underlying a cryptocurrency, determining its operations, transaction processing, and unit creation. It defines the technology and blockchain specific to each cryptocurrency.

C

Coin

A single unit of a cryptocurrency and is used to distinguish autonomous cryptocurrencies from tokens which operate on top of a parent blockchain.

C

Coin Mixer

An online service that can be used to anonymize the source of cryptocurrency by mixing digital coins from multiple sources.

C

Coinbase (Exchange)

An online platform and digital currency exchange where users can buy, sell, and store digital currencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum.

C

Coinbase (Mining reward)

The reward given to miners for validating blocks of transactions on a blockchain, typically in the form of newly minted cryptocurrency.

C

Cold Storage

A method of keeping digital assets, such as cryptocurrencies or data, offline and disconnected from the internet for increased security.

C

Cold Wallet

A type of cryptocurrency storage that is not connected to the internet, often in the form of a hardware device, for increased security.

C

Collateral

An asset or property that is pledged as security for a loan or other financial obligation.

C

Collateral Tokens

Digital tokens that represent a physical asset or currency held as collateral, often used in decentralized finance (DeFi) lending protocols.

C

Collateralization

The practice of pledging an asset or property as security for a loan or other financial obligation.

C

Collateralized Debt Obligation (CDO)

A type of structured asset-backed security that is backed by a pool of debt instruments such as bonds, loans or other debt instruments, which are then divided into different tranches with varying levels of risk and return.

C

Collateralized Debt Position (CDP)

A type of financial instrument that allows users to borrow funds by collateralizing their crypto assets. In other words, it is a way to borrow money by using your own crypto assets as collateral.

C

Collateralized Mortgage Obligation (CMO)

A type of mortgage-backed security that pools together mortgage loans and then redistributes the cash flows to different classes of investors based on the risk and return preferences.

C

Collaterized Stablecoin

Cryptocurrency with a stable value, backed by reserve assets (fiat or cryptocurrencies) held in a collateral pool, ensuring fixed exchange rate and redeemability.

C

Commingling

The practice of combining or mixing together assets, funds, or securities that belong to different parties, resulting in a loss of individual ownership and identity of the assets involved.

C

Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC)

An independent US agency that regulates and oversees the trading of futures contracts and other derivatives, including those involving cryptocurrencies and blockchain-based assets.

C

Composable DeFi

The ability of decentralized finance (DeFi) protocols and applications to be combined and integrated with each other, allowing for the creation of more complex and sophisticated financial products and services on the blockchain.

C

Composable Token

Cryptocurrency used as a building block for creating new tokens and interacting with other tokens and dApps, enhancing flexibility and interoperability in the blockchain ecosystem.

C

Confirmation

The process of verifying a new transaction or block added to the blockchain by multiple nodes on the network, providing an additional layer of security and immutability to the transaction.

C

Consensus

The process by which all participants in a network agree on the current state of the ledger, through a set of rules and protocols that ensure the accuracy and immutability of the data recorded on the blockchain.

C

ConsenSys

A software development company that builds decentralized applications (dApps) and blockchain solutions using the Ethereum platform and is one of the largest and most influential players in the blockchain industry.

C

Consortium Blockchain

Permissioned blockchain with multiple organizations controlling consensus and network maintenance. Ideal for privacy, scalability, and interoperability-focused use cases.

C

Consumer price index (CPI)

A measure of the average change in the prices of goods and services purchased by households over time, used to track inflation and assess changes in the cost of living.

C

Contract

Legally binding agreement between parties, defining obligations and rights. Can be written or oral, and in cryptocurrency, it's a digital agreement stored on a blockchain.

C

C

Contract for Difference (CFD)

A financial instrument that allows traders to speculate on the price movements of an underlying asset, without actually owning the asset, with the profit or loss being based on the difference between the entry and exit prices.

C

Coordinator

A special type of node in a cryptocurrency network that helps to coordinate the actions of other nodes, particularly validator nodes. Validator nodes are the nodes that validate transactions and create new blocks on the blockchain.

C

Core Wallet

A type of software program that stores the entire transaction history and blockchain of a cryptocurrency, providing a high level of security and autonomy to the user.

C

Corporate Treasury

The financial management function within a company that oversees its financial assets, investments, and risk management strategies.

C

Correction

A correction is a significant, short-term decline in the value of a financial market or asset, typically following a period of growth.

C

CPU Miner

A software program that uses a computer's central processing unit to mine cryptocurrencies by solving complex mathematical algorithms.

C

Craig Wright

Australian computer scientist and businessman who has claimed to be the creator of Bitcoin, although his claims have been widely disputed by the cryptocurrency community.

C

Credit Rating

A measure of an entity's creditworthiness, assessing the likelihood of the entity defaulting on its financial obligations.

C

Credit Risk

The probability that a borrower will default on their financial obligations, resulting in a loss for the lender.

C

Cross-border trading

The buying and selling of goods or services between individuals or businesses located in different countries, often facilitated by international trade agreements and electronic platforms.

C

Cross-Chain

Interconnecting blockchain networks, enabling decentralized asset and data transfer through atomic swaps, eliminating centralized intermediaries.

C

Crowdfunding

A way to raise money for a project or venture by collecting small amounts of money from a large number of people, usually through an online platform.

C

Crowdloan

A process in which people contribute cryptocurrency to a project in exchange for tokens or rewards.

C

Crypto Asset

A digital asset that utilizes cryptography to secure and verify transactions and to control the creation of new units, often operating independently of a central bank or government.

C

Crypto Debit Card

A payment card that allows users to spend their cryptocurrencies at merchants and withdraw cash from ATMs, similar to a traditional debit card.

C

Crypto Invoicing

The process of creating and sending invoices in cryptocurrency, allowing businesses to accept digital currency payments from their customers.

C

Cryptocurrency

A digital or virtual currency that uses encryption techniques to secure transactions and control the creation of new units, operating independently of a central bank or government.

C

Cryptocurrency Money Laundering

The use of cryptocurrency to conceal the source of illegally obtained funds by making them appear to be legitimate transactions.

C

Cryptocurrency Pairs

Two different currencies that can be traded against each other on a cryptocurrency exchange, representing the relative value of one cryptocurrency in terms of another.

C

Cryptographic Hash Function

A mathematical algorithm that produces a fixed-size output from arbitrary input data, which is one-way and collision-resistant.

C

Cryptography

The practice of securing communication from unauthorized access or manipulation through the use of mathematical algorithms and protocols.

C

Cryptojacking

A type of cyberattack where a hacker uses a victim's computing resources to mine cryptocurrency without their consent.

C

Cryptology

The study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties, encompassing both cryptography (the practice of secure communication) and cryptanalysis (the practice of breaking secure communication).

C

Currency

A medium of exchange that is used as a means of payment for goods and services.

C

Currency Crisis

A financial crisis that occurs when the value of a country's currency sharply declines, often leading to economic turmoil, social unrest, and political instability.

C

Curve AMM

An automated market maker that provides efficient and low-slippage trading for stablecoins using liquidity pools optimized for stablecoins, a bonding curve pricing mechanism, and various security features.

C

Crypto API

A crypto API is a set of commands and protocols allowing developers to interact with blockchain networks and cryptocurrencies.

C

DAO Summoning

DAO Summoning is the process of forming a DAO.

D

Dark Nodes

Dark Nodes function as decentralized, trustless custodians for digital assets that users store on the RenVM platform.

D

Dark Web

The Dark Web is the portion of the internet that is not indexed by search engines and requires special software to host and visit web pages on it.

D

Data Privacy

Data privacy is the protection of personal data from those who should not have access to it and the ability of individuals to determine who can access their personal information.

D

Data Scraping

Data Scraping is a method of extracting data from websites to save on local databases.

D

Date of Launch

Data of Launch is a term used for the date a new project will launch and open trading to the public.

D

Day Trading

Day trading is a process of buying and selling assets over the course of a day to gain profits.

D

Dead Cat Bounce

The Dead Cat Bounce is a technical indicator where an asset that has been in a long-term downtrend makes what seems to be a temporary recovery which is shortly followed by a continuing downward trend.

D

Dead Coin

A Dead Coin Is a cryptocurrency that is no longer trading

D

Death Cross

The Death Cross is a technical indicator that occurs when the 50-day moving average falls below the 200-day moving average, this is an indication of a bearish market.

D

Decentralization Ratio

The Decentralized Ratio is the ratio that measures the proportion of an asset's value that comes from decentralized sources.

D

Decentralized

Decentralized refers to the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision making, are distributed away from a central entity.

D

Decentralized APP (dAPP)

A DApp is a type of application that runs on a decentralized blockchain network that supports smart contracts.

D

Decentralized Autonomous Initial Coin Offerings (DAICO)

A crowdfunding mechanism for blockchain-based projects that seeks to provide more secure and transparent fundraising by integrating the features of a Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) with an Initial Coin Offering (ICO).

D

Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAO)

A community-driven organization that operates on a blockchain-based decentralized network, with rules and decision-making determined through smart contracts and the consensus of its members.

D

Decentralized Currency

Any currency that is not issued by a central bank or controlled by one entity and it can be transferred without needing a third party.

D

Decentralized Database

A system in which data is stored on a distributed network of nodes or participants, rather than on a central server, enabling increased security, transparency, and resilience.

D

Decentralized Exchange (DEX)

A cryptocurrency exchange platform that allows for peer-to-peer trading of cryptocurrencies without the need for a central authority or intermediary.

D

Decentralized Finance (DeFi)

A blockchain-based financial system that enables open, permissionless and transparent access to a range of financial services, including lending, borrowing, trading, and investing, without the need for intermediaries such as banks or brokerages.

D

Decentralized Governance

A democratic system where power is shared among participants, enabling autonomous control over collective resources and decision-making.

D

Decentralized Marketplace

An e-commerce platform where buyers and sellers can directly interact and transact with each other without the need for a central authority or intermediary.

D

Decentralized Network

A type of network architecture in which nodes or participants are distributed throughout the system, without any central authority or control.

D

Decentralized Payment Network

A financial system that allows for peer-to-peer transactions without the need for intermediaries such as banks or other financial institutions.

D

Decentralized Social Media

A type of social media platform that is built on a decentralized network, where users control their data and content, and are incentivized to contribute to the network's maintenance and growth through tokens or other rewards

D

Decentralized Stablecoin

A type of cryptocurrency that aims to maintain a stable value relative to a particular asset, such as the US dollar, and is not controlled by a central authority, relying instead on a decentralized protocol for its issuance and maintenance.

D

Decryption

The process of converting encrypted data back into its original, readable form, typically using a decryption key or password.

D

Deep Web

The part of the internet that is not indexed by standard search engines and requires specific software or authorization to access, often consisting of private or encrypted networks and unindexed websites.

D

Defi Aggregator

A platform that integrates multiple decentralized finance protocols, allowing users to access a wide range of DeFi services and products in one place.

D

Defi Degens

A term used to describe individuals who are actively engaged in decentralized finance (DeFi) protocols and are willing to take on high-risk investments for potentially high returns.

D

Deflation

A general decrease in the overall level of prices for goods and services in an economy over time, resulting in an increase in the purchasing power of money.

D

Delegated Proof-of-Stake (dPOS)

A consensus algorithm used by some blockchain networks, where token holders elect a set number of nodes as validators to produce new blocks and verify transactions on their behalf.

D

Delisting

The process of removing an asset from an exchange.

D

Denial-of-Service Attack

A type of cyber attack that floods a network or server with traffic, rendering it unable to provide normal service to its intended users.

D

Depth Chart

Plots outstanding limit orders to show the point where a transaction is most likely to be executed due to the market.

D

Derivative

A popular financial instrument where the value is derived from an underlying asset.

D

Derivatives Market

A public market for trading derivatives such as futures contracts or options.

D

Deterministic Wallet

A type of cryptocurrency wallet that generates all private and public keys from a single seed or master key, making it possible to derive all subsequent keys and recover the entire wallet from a single backup.

D

Dex Aggregator

A platform that combines liquidity from multiple decentralized exchanges (Dexes) to offer users the best possible trade execution prices and improved market depth.

D

Diamond Hands

In the context of investing, particularly in the stock market and cryptocurrency, to describe a strong conviction in holding onto a particular asset for a long period of time, despite market fluctuations or volatility.

D

Difficulty

Measure of mining block complexity in a blockchain network, determined by current computational power. It adjusts with increased or decreased miner participation to maintain consistent block mining rate and network security.

D

Digital

Electronic technology that generates, stores, processes, and transmits data in a binary format consisting of ones and zeros.

D

Digital Art

Art or other media that is created by utilizing digital technology.

D

Digital Asset

Any form of electronic data or content that has value, including cryptocurrencies, tokens, digital certificates, and other digital representations of assets.

D

Digital Asset Custodian

A third-party service provider that offers secure storage and management solutions for digital assets, such as cryptocurrencies, tokens, and other forms of digital value.

D

Digital Asset Ecosystem

The infrastructure, platforms, and technologies that support the creation, exchange, and management of digital assets, such as cryptocurrencies, tokens, and other digital forms of value.

D

Digital Barter Economy

A system of exchanging goods or services without the use of physical currency, facilitated by digital platforms and technologies that enable direct, peer-to-peer transactions.

D

Digital Commodity

A unique and scarce digital asset that is based on blockchain or distributed ledger technology, designed to function as a store of value or medium of exchange.

D

Digital Currency

A currency represented by 1s and 0s and doesn’t exist in the real world.

D

Digital Dollar (CBDC)

A digital form of fiat currency that is issued and regulated by a country's central bank, designed to facilitate electronic payments, enhance financial inclusion, and improve the efficiency and security of payment systems.

D

Digital Identity

The information that uniquely identifies an individual or entity online, including personal attributes, credentials, and online behavior.

D

Digital Signature

A mathematical scheme that uses cryptographic techniques to verify the authenticity, integrity, and non-repudiation of a digital document, message, or transaction.

D

Dildo

A red or green vertical line on graphs showing market data.

D

Dip

A sudden, temporary drop in the value of an asset, market, or index, typically caused by a range of factors, including economic, political, or social events.

D

Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)

A type of data structure that consists of nodes and edges connecting those nodes in a directed manner without any cycles, often used for efficient data processing and storage in distributed systems.

D

Discord

Popular instant messaging and digital distribution platform designed for creating communities and connecting gamers, developers, and other users through voice, video, and text communication.

D

Distributed consensus

A process of reaching agreement among multiple nodes in a decentralized network to achieve a common goal or to validate a transaction or data in a consistent and trustless manner.

D

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack

A malicious attempt to disrupt normal traffic of a targeted server, service, or network by overwhelming it with a flood of traffic from multiple sources.

D

Distributed Ledger

A type of database that is spread across a network of computers, which enables multiple parties to have a synchronized, secure, and immutable record of transactions or other types of data without the need for a centralized authority.

D

Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)

A decentralized database system that allows multiple parties to have a synchronized, immutable, and secure record of transactions or other types of data without the need for a trusted central authority.

D

Distributed Network

A network that uses multiple nodes or computers to share resources, data, and processing power, allowing for increased scalability, fault tolerance, and decentralized control.

D

Do Your Own Research (DYOR)

A phrase used to encourage individuals to conduct their own due diligence and investigate an investment opportunity before making a decision to invest.

D

Dolphin

An individual with a moderate holing of cryptocurrency

D

Dominance

The value of an asset in the context of the total cryptocurrency market.

D

Dorian Nakamoto

A Japanese American physicist who is believed by some to be Satoshi Nakamoto

D

DotSama

A word used to describe both the Kusama and Polkadot ecosystems.

D

Double Spend Attack

A type of cryptocurrency attack where an individual or group attempts to spend the same unit of cryptocurrency twice by manipulating the network, typically by controlling the majority of the network's computing power or nodes.

D

Double Spending

The act of spending the same unit of cryptocurrency more than once, which is typically prevented by blockchain networks through the use of consensus algorithms and transaction verification.

D

Dual-Token Model

A cryptocurrency framework where two types of tokens, typically utility and governance tokens, are issued and used for different functions within a blockchain network.

D

Dump

The act of selling a large amount of a particular cryptocurrency, often causing its price to drop rapidly.

D

Dumping

The practice of selling a large amount of a particular asset, such as stocks or cryptocurrencies, on the market in a short period of time, typically leading to a significant drop in the asset's price.

D

Dust Transactions

Very small and usually uneconomical cryptocurrency transactions that are often disregarded by network nodes due to their low value, and can sometimes lead to transaction backlog and increased fees.

D

Dusting Attack

A type of cryptocurrency hack where small amounts of a new, potentially trackable cryptocurrency are sent to a large number of addresses, potentially allowing the attacker to de-anonymize the recipients and trace their transactions.

D

Dynamic Coin Offering (DYCO)

A token sale model that adjusts the token price based on market demand and supply, aiming to reduce price volatility and improve investor returns.

D

E-Signature

A digital signature that provides a secure, legally binding way to sign and approve documents electronically.

E

Economic Utility

The satisfaction or usefulness a consumer derives from consuming a good or service.

E

Edge Nodes

Devices or computers located at the periphery of a network that serve as a communication point between the network and other connected devices or networks.

E

Elliot Waves

A technical analysis tool that seeks to identify repetitive patterns in financial market data to make predictions about future market movements.

E

E

Emission

The speed at which new coins are being produced and released on the market.

E

Encryption

The process of transforming plain text into an unreadable form to protect its confidentiality and prevent unauthorized access or tampering.

E

Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA)

A global standards organization that promotes the adoption and use of the Ethereum blockchain in the business world, through the development of standards, certification programs, and technology solutions.

E

Epoch

A fixed, predefined length of time in data processing or machine learning that represents a complete iteration over the entire dataset.

E

Equity

The ownership interest that a shareholder has in a company, represented by the residual value of assets after deducting liabilities.

E

Erasure Encoding

A technique in data storage and transmission that involves breaking up data into smaller fragments and encoding them in a redundant manner to ensure data availability and reliability in the event of partial data loss or failure.

E

ERC-1155

A standard for token contracts on the Ethereum blockchain that allows for the creation of both fungible and non-fungible tokens (NFTs) in a single contract, increasing efficiency and flexibility.

E

ERC-20

A technical standard for smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, defining a common list of rules for tokens to follow within the Ethereum ecosystem, including how tokens are transferred, managed and stored.

E

ERC-223

A proposed improvement to the ERC-20 standard for token contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, designed to address the issue of lost tokens resulting from the improper use of ERC-20's transfer function.

E

ERC-721

A technical standard for non-fungible tokens (NFTs) on the Ethereum blockchain, allowing for the creation of unique, indivisible assets that can be owned, traded and managed on the blockchain.

E

ERC-777

A proposed improvement to the ERC-20 standard for token contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, designed to offer greater flexibility and control over token transfers, and improved gas efficiency compared to the ERC-20 standard.

E

ERC-827

Technical standard on Ethereum for token contracts, enhancing ERC-20 functionality. Enables transfer of tokens with complex data payloads, including execution of smart contract functions and multiple token transfers within a single transaction.

E

ERC-884

Ethereum standard for token contracts, enabling transfer of securities on the blockchain. Rules for tokens representing ownership or profit shares, ensuring secure and transparent transactions.

E

ERC-948

Proposed Ethereum standard for token contracts representing subscriptions. Introduces a framework for tokens embodying recurring payment rights, enabling the creation of tokens tied to regular payment receipt.

E

Escrow

A financial arrangement where a neutral third party holds and manages funds or assets on behalf of a buyer and a seller, ensuring the safe and secure exchange of those assets only when predetermined conditions have been met.

E

Esports

A sort of online gaming where players are offered compensation by company’s or by winning competitions against other players.

E

Ethash

A proof-of-work consensus algorithm used by the Ethereum blockchain to validate transactions and secure the network, designed to be ASIC-resistant and promote a decentralized mining ecosystem.

E

Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP)

A standardized process for proposing changes or improvements to the Ethereum protocol through a clear and concise design document for community review and discussion.

E

Ethereum Transaction

A record of the transfer of value or data from one Ethereum address to another, confirmed and recorded on the Ethereum blockchain through a process known as mining.

E

Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)

A secure and isolated software environment that executes smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, providing a predictable and consistent platform for decentralized applications (dapps) to interact with the Ethereum network.

E

Exchange

A platform that facilitates the buying, selling, and trading of financial instruments, such as stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, and cryptocurrencies, by bringing together buyers and sellers to execute trades in a centralized marketplace.

E

Exchanged Traded Fund (ETF)

Investment fund with a diversified asset portfolio, traded on stock exchanges. Enables investors to buy and sell fund shares like stocks, providing convenient and cost-effective exposure to the performance of underlying assets.

E

Exit Scam

A fraudulent scheme in which the creators of a cryptocurrency or Initial Coin Offering (ICO) project suddenly disappear, taking with them the funds that have been raised from investors, without delivering the promised product or service.

E

Explain Like I’m Five (ELI5)

A phrase used to request a simple and easy-to-understand explanation of a complex topic.

E

Exponential Moving Average (EMA)

A type of moving average that gives more weight to recent prices in an attempt to make it more responsive to recent price changes.

E

Falling Knife

A falling knife occurs when the price of an asset suddenly and dramatically depreciates. Ex: Falling knives can be followed by a swift rebound known as a whipsaw which will yield good returns for those who bought at the bottom.

F

Falling Wedge

When a market centralizes between intersecting support and resistance lines a falling wedge forms, this is a bullish indicator.

F

Fan Token

Fan Token: A fan token is a type of cryptocurrency which grants privileges to its holders in the form of membership related benefits in a sports team. Ex: Socios is termed as the pioneer of creating fan tokens using the Chiliz platform.

F

FATF Travel Rule

The Financial Action Task Force travel rule was derived from the Banking Secrecy Act that requires countries to monitor users who transmit more than $1,000 in a transaction.

F

Faucet

A Faucet is an award system where users will complete certain tasks on a website in return for cryptocurrency. Ex: Developed in 2010, the Bitcoin faucet awarded users with 5 BTC per task.

F

Fear of Missing Out (FOMO)

FOMO is a psychological condition where somebody buys an asset in a panic usually as it is appreciating because they think they will miss out on potential gains.

F

Fork (Software)

FUD can be speech or an attitude used by an individual or group directed at other individuals, groups, or projects Ex: FUD is most common in online messaging services or on social media.

F

Fee Tiers

Fee tiers refer to the structured charges that users acquire while interacting with crypto exchanges or smart contracts.

F

Fiat

Fiat refers to legal tender backed by a central government. Ex: Fiat currency recognized for trade and the only fiat accepted for payment of taxes in the United States is USD.

F

Fiat On-Ramp

A fiat on-ramp is a means of exchanging fiat, or legal tender, for a digital asset. Ex: Fiat on-ramps are now integrated into many wallets and decentralized exchanges, requiring less transactions for users.

F

Fiat-Pegged Cryptocurrency

A fiat-pegged cryptocurrency is a digital asset whose value represents the backing of a bank-issued or government currency. Ex: Often referred to as stablecoins, this includes tokens such as USDC and USDT.

F

Fibonacci Retracement Level

A Fibonacci retracement level is created by horizontal lines drawn using support and resistance levels on a market’s graph Ex: Fibonacci ratios identify the price momentum of an asset in markets.

F

Field Programmable Gate Array

A field programmable gate array is a programmable logic using an application-specific integrated circuit for tailored specific uses. Ex: Users program the gate array after production for their specific needs.

F

Financial Action Task Force (FATF)

The Financial Action Task Force is an intergovernmental organization which developes policies to combat money laundering and terrorist financing.

F

Financial Crime Enforcement Network (FinCEN)

FinCEN is a United States Financial Intelligence Unit who is one of more than 100 organizations belonging to the international Egmont Group.

F

Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Center (FINTRAC)

FINTRAC is the Canadian nation’s financial intelligence agency. Ex: The agency operates under the Proceeds of Crime Money and Terrorist Financing Act.

F

First In, First Out (FIFO)

FIFO (First In, First Out) accounting is a method where the oldest acquired or produced inventory items are the first to be sold or utilized, mirroring real-world inventory movements and ensuring accurate cost valuation.

F

First-Mover Advantage (FMA)

First-mover advantage refers to the advantage the earliest project in a specific industry has compared to their competitors because of their early entry in the markets.

F

Fish

A Fish is a slang word for an individual with a small investment in a cryptocurrency. Ex: Fish make up the bulk of the retail investors and are commonly the most hurt by price fluctuations.

F

Flash Crash

A flash crash is a very rapid depreciation of price in an asset within a brief time interval. Ex: Pump and dump tokens will usually end in a flash crash which they never recover from due to a community full of “degens”.

F

Flash Loan

A flash loan is a defi instrument where a loan is swiftly processed,acquired, and repaid in a very short period without requiring a form of collateral.

F

Flash Loan Attack

Flash loan attacks are exploits in DeFI where a smart contract designated to support the provision of flash loans is attacked in order to siphon assets stored in any particular pool.

F

Flipping

Flipping is the process of buying an asset and reselling it when the price has appreciated. Ex: Most cryptocurrency investors buy with the intent to flip their assets for a profit.

F

Fork (Blockchain)

A fork is when a blockchain splits into two simultaneously running networks, the original staying intact and a new one with different features. Ex: The Bitcoin Cash blockchain was created as a fork of Bitcoin in 2017.

F

Fork (Software)

A software fork is where an open source software has been developed into an entirely new program. Ex: Software forks are extremely common on the Binance Smart Chain where Dapps with forked software are being launched daily.

F

Fractional Stablecoins

A fractional stablecoin is one that is only partially backed by collateral while being stabilized using an algorithm. Ex: Fractional stablecoins are known to be extremely hard to implement given they aren’t fully collateralized and are initially volatile.

F

Fraud Proof

Using optimistic rollups fraud proofs reduce costs and lower latency levels for Dapps on a blockchain network. Ex: Fraud proofs show that a state transition was made incorrectly but are only required when things go wrong, using less computing resources.

F

Front Running

Front running is when a transaction is placed in a queue before another transaction, knowledgeably cutting the user that should be next in line.

F

FUDster

A FUDster is an individual who is actively spreading FUD. EX: Fudsters sit in online messaging groups spreading FUD to psychologically damage others.

F

Full Node

A Full node is a node that downloads the entire history of the blockchain and is able to fully validate transactions and blocks.

F

Fully Homomorphic Encryption

Fully homomorphic encryption is a form of encryption scheme that allows computations to be performed on data while it is still encrypted.

F

Fundamental Analysis (FA)

Fundamental analysis is the process of researching an asset by investigating the technology, tokenomics, and team to speculate on future value. Ex: Fundamental analysis should be the first form of research conducted on any asset in any asset class.

F

Funding Payments

Funding payments are used in cryptocurrency derivative exchanges for perpetual contracts which drives the trade price closer to the index price of the underlying asset.

F

Funding Payments

Fungible refers to an asset's nature that one part or quantity may be replaced by another equal part or quantity.

F

Futures

Futures are derivative financial contracts that obligate the parties to transact an asset at a predetermined future date and price.

F

Game channel

A modern innovation in blockchain technology that enhances the gaming experience by enabling fast and seamless gameplay by eliminating the wait time between moves.

G

Game Theory

The study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers.

G

GameFi

A decentralized platform for buying, selling, and exchanging digital assets related to video games and gaming culture.

G

Gas

The fee charged for executing transactions or smart contract operations on the blockchain, which serves as an incentive for the network's participants to validate and process the transactions.

G

Gas limit

the maximum amount of gas that a user is willing to spend on a transaction or smart contract execution, serving as a control mechanism for the cost of the operation.

G

Gavin Wood

A British software engineer and entrepreneur, best known as a co-founder and former Chief Technology Officer of Ethereum.

G

Gems

Small, lesser-known cryptocurrency projects with a low market capitalization that have the potential for significant growth and profits, but can also be high-risk investments.

G

Genesis block

The first block in a blockchain network and serves as the foundation of the entire system, containing the initial set of transactions and serving as the starting point for all future blocks.

G

Geotagged NFT

A type of Non-Fungible Token that is associated with a specific location and can be used to represent virtual or physical assets that are tied to a specific place.

G

Geth

Open-source, command-line interface client for interacting with the Ethereum blockchain, allowing users to mine, transfer, and manage Ether (ETH) and other Ethereum-based assets.

G

GitHub

A web-based platform for version control and collaboration that allows developers to store, manage, and track changes to their code, as well as to share and contribute to code repositories created by others.

G

Gold-Backed Cryptocurrency

A type of cryptocurrency that is backed by a reserve of physical gold, where the value of the currency is pegged to the price of gold, aiming to provide stability and a hedge against market volatility.

G

Golden Cross

A technical analysis pattern in which a short-term moving average crosses above a long-term moving average, indicating a bullish trend and potentially signaling a new uptrend in the market.

G

Google Authenticator

A free security app that provides two-factor authentication for user accounts by generating time-based one-time passcodes.

G

Governance

Set of processes, principles, and rules by which a society or organization is managed and controlled.

G

Governance token

A cryptocurrency token that gives its holder the right to participate in the decision-making process of a decentralized organization or network by allowing them to vote on proposals and changes to the protocol.

G

Graphical processing unit

A specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly process and render images, animations, and video.

G

Greater Fool Theory

An investment philosophy that suggests that it's possible to make money by buying assets that are overvalued or have no intrinsic value, as long as there is a "greater fool" who is willing to pay a higher price for it.

G

Group mining

Also known as pool mining, is a method of cryptocurrency mining where individuals combine their computational resources to increase their chances of finding blocks and earning rewards.

G

Gwei

A unit of Ethereum's Ether (ETH) cryptocurrency that is used to measure gas fees or the cost of executing transactions and smart contracts on the Ethereum network.

G

Hacking

where a user can manipulate the code of another computer or server and bypass the firewall gaining access to any files on the computer.

H

Hal Finney

One of the first recipients of a cryptocurrency transaction, helping pave the way to its success.

H

Halving

The reduction of miner or validator rewards in a cryptocurrency ecosystem.

H

Hard Cap

The most amount of a cryptocurrency that can be produced, or contributed in the case of fundraising.

H

Hard Fork

An event in which a blockchain or token is "Updated" by discarding an old network and implementing a new.

H

Hard Fork (Combinator)

upgrades added to the blockchain after a hard fork is used to combine multiple protocols.

H

Hard Peg

A hard peg is when a country or other entity pegs it's currency to that of another

H

Hardware Security Module

A dedicated crypto processor that provides secure storage of cryptographic keys and facilitates encrypted transactions, providing a higher level of security for sensitive information compared to software-based solutions.

H

Hardware Wallet

A physical device designed to securely store cryptocurrency private keys, offering increased security compared to software wallets by keeping the keys isolated from the internet.

H

Hash

A cryptographic function that takes an input (or 'message') and returns a fixed-size output string, serving as a digital fingerprint that is used for verifying the integrity of the data and for data security.

H

Hash function

A mathematical function that takes an input (or 'message') and returns a fixed-size string of characters, which serves as a unique digital fingerprint of the original data, used for security purposes in cryptography and data structures.

H

Hash Power/Hash Rate

A measurement of the computing power of a cryptocurrency mining rig or network, representing the number of hashes (mathematical operations) it can perform per second.

H

Hedge Contract

Serve as a form of insurance for investors by helping to mitigate the risk of financial loss in the event of significant market volatility or other unfavorable conditions.

H

Hidden Cap

A feature in crowdfunding or initial coin offering (ICO) campaigns that sets a maximum limit on investment, allowing smaller investors to participate by hiding the actual cap from public view.

H

Hierarchical Deterministic Wallet

A type of cryptocurrency wallet that generates new addresses for each transaction, providing increased privacy and security through the use of a single seed phrase for backup and recovery.

H

HODL

Slang term used in the cryptocurrency community that stands for "Hold On for Dear Life" and refers to the strategy of holding onto one's investments despite market volatility.

H

Honeyminer

Software that enables individuals to easily mine multiple cryptocurrencies by utilizing their computer's spare computing power.

H

Hosted Wallet

Digital wallet managed by a third-party service provider, which enables users to access and use the wallet, but with limited control over the underlying assets.

H

Hot Storage

A storage solution for digital assets that is connected to the internet and therefore easily accessible, making it suitable for more frequent transactions.

H

Hot Wallet

A cryptocurrency wallet that is connected to the internet and used for storing, sending, and receiving digital assets.

H

Howey test

A four-pronged test used to determine whether an investment contract is a security and subject to federal securities regulation.

H

Huobi BTC

Huobi BTC is a crypto-currency exchange run by Huobi, a global digital asset financial services provider founded in 2013.

H

Hybrid PoW/PoS

A consensus mechanism that combines elements of both Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS) algorithms in order to secure a blockchain network. It is designed to provide the best of both worlds - the security of PoW and the efficiency of PoS.

H

Hyperledger (Hyperledger Foundation)

Started by the Linux foundation, the fast-growing project helps introduce blockchain technology by supporting the collaborative development of the blockchain ledgers

H

I Owe You (IOU)

Written or verbal agreement acknowledging a debt owed by one party to another.

I

Immutable

An object in programming that cannot be changed or altered after it has been created.

I

Impermanent loss

A phenomenon in decentralized finance where the value of a token in a liquidity pool decreases due to price changes between the tokens being traded, resulting in a temporary loss for liquidity providers.

I

In The Money/Out Of The Money

The profitability of a derivative contract, such as options, where if the contract has intrinsic value it is considered In The Money and if it lacks intrinsic value it is Out Of The Money.

I

Infinite Approval

A consensus mechanism in blockchain technology where validators continuously validate transactions and add blocks to the chain as long as they receive rewards.

I

Infinite Mint Attack

A potential vulnerability in cryptocurrency systems where an attacker can mint an unlimited amount of tokens and significantly inflate the supply, potentially causing economic damage to the system and its users.

I

Inflation

The general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing power of money over a period of time.

I

Initial Bounty Offering (IBO)

A method of fundraising in the blockchain industry where a project rewards supporters with tokens for participating in specific tasks to promote the project and increase its visibility.

I

Initial Coin Offering (ICO)

A fundraising mechanism where a new cryptocurrency project sells its tokens to early adopters in exchange for funding, with the hope of increasing its value in the future and providing liquidity for the tokens

I

Initial Dex Offering (IDO)

A type of fundraising event in the cryptocurrency industry where a new token is launched and made available for trading on a decentralized exchange.

I

Initial Exchange Offering (IEO)

A type of crowdfunding event in the cryptocurrency industry where a new token is launched and made available for trading on a centralized exchange platform.

I

Initial Farm Offering (IFO)

A type of cryptocurrency fundraising event where token holders can earn rewards by staking their tokens in a liquidity pool.

I

Initial Game Offering (IGO)

A fundraising event in the gaming industry where a new virtual item or currency is offered for purchase in a game before it becomes widely available.

I

Initial Public Offering (IPO)

The first sale of stock by a company to the public, used to raise capital from public investors.

I

Initial Token Offering (ITO)

A type of crowdfunding event in the cryptocurrency industry where a new token is launched and made available for purchase in exchange for existing cryptocurrencies or fiat currency

I

Insider Trading

The illegal practice of using confidential information to buy or sell securities for personal profit.

I

Instamine

The situation in the cryptocurrency industry where a large portion of a new token's supply is mined or distributed to a small group of early adopters shortly after the launch, potentially resulting in unfair distribution and centralization.

I

Instant Settlement Network Layer

A payment system that enables near-instant transfer and clearance of funds, often using blockchain technology to eliminate intermediaries and increase efficiency.

I

Institutional Investor

A large organization, such as a bank, pension fund, or insurance company, that invests funds on behalf of its clients or for its own benefit.

I

Insurance Fraud

The deliberate act of making false or exaggerated claims to an insurance company with the intent to obtain financial gain.

I

Intellectual Property

A legally protected category of creations of the mind, such as inventions, literary and artistic works, symbols, names, images, and designs, used to secure exclusive rights for their creators to commercialize and prevent unauthorized use.

I

Intercontinental Exchange

A leading operator of global exchanges and clearing houses, providing trading and risk management services across multiple asset classes, including futures and options on energy, agricultural products, and financial instruments.

I

Interest Rates

The percentage of an amount borrowed or saved that represents the cost of borrowing or return on saving, and play a crucial role in the economy by affecting the cost of borrowing, return on savings, and value of investments.

I

Intermediary/Middleman

A person or entity that acts as a link between two parties, facilitating transactions and often adding value by providing information, expertise, or other services.

I

Internal Transaction

Transactions that occur within a single organization, between its different departments, business units, or subsidiaries, without involving external parties.

I

Internet Memes

A cultural symbol or social idea that is spread via the internet, often in the form of an image, video, or piece of text, that is meant to be humorous or satirical and typically evolves over time through remixing and creative variations.

I

Internet of Things (IOT)

A system of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with sensors, software, and network connectivity, enabling them to collect and exchange data over the internet.

I

Internet Service Provider (ISP)

A company that provides access to the internet, either through wired or wireless connections, to individuals and organizations.

I

Interoperability

The ability of different blockchain systems to communicate and exchange data with each other, allowing for seamless integration and creating a more connected ecosystem.

I

Interplanetary File System (IPFS)

A decentralized and distributed network protocol designed to store and access files in a peer-to-peer fashion, allowing for a more resilient and scalable web infrastructure.

I

Intrinsic Value

The inherent worth of an asset, such as a stock, bond, or real estate, that is separate from its market price and is estimated based on factors such as future cash flows, earnings potential, or other underlying fundamental metrics.

I

Invest

The act of allocating resources, such as money or time, with the expectation of generating a profit or acquiring additional assets in the future.

I

Investment Vehicle (Crypto Tide)

Financial product or mechanism used to invest money with the expectation of generating returns. Crypto Tide refers to using cryptocurrencies as an investment vehicle for generating returns.

I

IP Address (Internet Protocol address)

A unique numerical label assigned to each device connected to the internet, used to identify and locate the device on a network.

I

Lambo

Short for Lamborghini, referring to the dream that many users have from getting rich off of crypto.

L

Large Cap

Tokens or stocks with relatively high market capitalization values, typically over $10B.

L

Laser Eyes

Users who are infatuated with Bitcoin or other crypto's, also referred to as "Bitcoin Maxi's"

L

Law of accelerating return

The idea that technology will advance so quickly that society will be irreversibly changed.

L

Layer 0

A blockchain structure that operates on a global scale, connecting the world’s major blockchains to create a unified network. It enables users to securely store, trade, and manage digital assets across all major blockchain networks.

L

Layer 1 blockchain

A fundamental blockchain platform that provides the basic infrastructure and protocols needed to secure and validate transactions and maintain a decentralized ledger, serving as the foundation for higher level applications and services.

L

Layer 2

A layer of technology that exists on top of an existing blockchain network. It is used to improve the scalability, privacy, and speed of transactions within the blockchain network.

L

Leverage

The use of borrowed capital to increase the potential return of an investment. By using leverage, an investor can increase their exposure to an asset, such as stocks, without having to invest the full amount of the purchase price.

L

Leveraged tokens

Financial products that provide leveraged exposure to an underlying asset, such as stocks, and are tokenized and traded on decentralized exchanges. They offer magnified returns, but also increased potential losses, similar to margin trading.

L

Libp2p

An open-source, secure network stack that helps developers create network applications. It provides a modular, secure, and extensible peer-to-peer networking framework for applications and services.

L

Light Node

Cryptocurrency node that does not store the entire blockchain, but instead relies on other full nodes for information to validate transactions, used to reduce storage and computational requirements.

L

Lightning Network

A second layer payment protocol built on top of the Bitcoin blockchain to enable fast, low-cost, off-chain transactions.