What is Deep Web?

The deep web refers to the portion of the internet that is not indexed by search engines and therefore not easily accessible to the general public. This includes a wide range of information and services, such as government databases, academic journals, and private websites. The deep web is estimated to be hundreds of times larger than the surface web, which is the portion of the internet that is easily accessible through search engines like Google.

One of the key features of the deep web is that it is largely anonymous, making it a popular platform for illegal activities, such as the sale of drugs, stolen goods, and illegal services. However, it is also used for legitimate purposes, such as secure communication and online banking.

To access the deep web, users typically need to use specialized software, such as the Tor browser, which allows them to connect to hidden services and access information that is not indexed by search engines. The anonymity provided by the deep web can make it difficult for law enforcement to monitor and prevent illegal activities, leading to criticism of the technology and its use.

Simplified Example

The deep web is like a big library where you can find books that are kept in the basement or on special shelves that are not easily accessible to everyone. Just like how you need to ask the librarian for help to find the books in the basement or on the special shelves, you also need special tools to access information on the deep web.

The deep web refers to parts of the internet that are not indexed by search engines like Google, and are not easily accessible to the general public. Just like how some books in the library are kept out of reach and can only be found with help, information on the deep web is hidden and can only be accessed with the right tools. This information might include things like confidential government documents, restricted medical records, or private online forums.

Who Invented the Deep Web?

The term "Deep Web" is most often attributed to computer scientist Michael K. Bergman, who used it in a 2001 paper titled "The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value". In this paper, Bergman differentiated the "Deep Web" from the "Surface Web", which comprises publicly accessible websites indexed by search engines. The Deep Web, according to Bergman, refers to the vast amount of online content that remains hidden from search engines and requires specific tools or access credentials to access.


Tor Network: The Tor network is one of the largest and most well-known examples of the deep web. It is a network of encrypted servers that allows users to access websites and services anonymously, bypassing censorship and surveillance. In this system, users can access websites and services that are not indexed by search engines, such as illegal marketplaces, political forums, and encrypted email services.

Darknet Marketplaces: Darknet marketplaces are online marketplaces that operate on the deep web and are only accessible using special browsers, such as the Tor browser. In this system, users can buy and sell illegal goods and services, such as drugs, firearms, and counterfeit documents, in a secure and anonymous environment. Darknet marketplaces are often highly encrypted, making them resistant to law enforcement and government surveillance.

Private Encrypted Messaging Services: Private encrypted messaging services are online services that allow users to communicate securely and anonymously in the deep web. In this system, users can send encrypted messages and files that are resistant to surveillance and interception, making them ideal for sensitive communications, such as political activism, whistleblowing, and journalism. Private encrypted messaging services can be accessed using the Tor network or other encrypted browsers, providing a high level of privacy and security for users.

  • Dark Web: The Dark Web is a part of the internet that is not accessible through regular search engines.

  • Web 2.0: The meaning of Web 2.0 refers to the next generation of the World Wide Web, which emerged in the early 2000s and continues to evolve.