What is a Private Blockchain?

A private blockchain is a decentralized digital ledger that is maintained by a closed group of participants who are trusted and authorized to access the network. Unlike public blockchains, such as the Bitcoin and Ethereum networks, private blockchains are not open to the general public and are only accessible to approved members.

In a private blockchain, the participants have more control over the network and can make decisions about who is allowed to participate, what transactions are validated, and how the network operates. This makes private blockchains more suitable for use in businesses and organizations that require a higher level of control and security over their digital assets and transactions.

Some common use cases for private blockchains include supply chain management, asset tracking, and digital identity management. Private blockchains can also be used for financial transactions, such as remittances and cross-border payments, where privacy and security are a top concern.

The key characteristics of private blockchains include:

Controlled access: Only authorized participants are allowed to join the network and access its data.

Consensus mechanism: The participants agree on a consensus mechanism, such as proof-of-work or proof-of-stake, to validate transactions and maintain the integrity of the network.

Privacy: The transactions and data on a private blockchain are typically private and not visible to the public.

Scalability: Private blockchains are often designed to handle a smaller number of participants and transactions, making them more scalable than public blockchains.

Overall, private blockchains offer a balance of security, privacy, and control that makes them well suited for a wide range of use cases in various industries.

Simplified Example

Imagine you and your friends have a secret club that meets in your treehouse. Only members of the club are allowed to enter the treehouse and see what's inside.

In the same way, a private blockchain is like a secret club that only certain people are allowed to join and see the information that's being stored. Just like how only members of your secret club are allowed to enter the treehouse, only certain people are allowed to access the information stored on a private blockchain.

In this analogy, the treehouse represents a private blockchain, and the secret club represents the group of people who are allowed to access and use the blockchain.

History of the Term Private Blockchain

The emergence of the term "private blockchain" in finance stemmed from the need for restricted-access, permissioned blockchain networks distinct from public blockchains like Bitcoin. The concept gained momentum in the mid-2010s when financial institutions and enterprises sought to harness the benefits of blockchain technology while ensuring control and privacy over sensitive data. Around 2015, discussions around private blockchains grew as firms explored their potential applications in various industries, especially in finance. In the crypto realm, the concept expanded as businesses and consortiums experimented with permissioned blockchains, aiming to maintain decentralized features while restricting access to authorized entities. The idea of private blockchains evolved as a means to strike a balance between the transparency and immutability of blockchain technology and the need for controlled access and confidentiality, making it a pivotal aspect of blockchain adoption in finance and broader sectors.


Enterprise Blockchain: An enterprise blockchain is a private blockchain that is designed for use by a specific organization or group of organizations. This type of blockchain allows for greater control over the network, as only authorized participants are able to read, write, or validate transactions. This can be important in industries such as finance, healthcare, and government, where privacy and security are critical concerns. For example, a financial institution may use an enterprise blockchain to securely and efficiently process transactions among its customers, while also maintaining the confidentiality of sensitive financial information.

Supply Chain Blockchain: A supply chain blockchain is a private blockchain that is designed to improve transparency and efficiency in supply chain operations. This type of blockchain allows suppliers, manufacturers, and distributors to securely share information and track the movement of goods throughout the supply chain. For example, a food manufacturer may use a supply chain blockchain to track the origin and movement of ingredients, ensuring that the food is safe and free from contaminants. By using a private blockchain, the manufacturer can maintain the confidentiality of sensitive information, such as trade secrets or intellectual property, while also improving the transparency and efficiency of its supply chain operations.

Healthcare Blockchain: A healthcare blockchain is a private blockchain that is designed to improve the efficiency and privacy of healthcare data management. This type of blockchain allows healthcare providers to securely store and share patient health records, while also maintaining the privacy of sensitive information. For example, a hospital may use a healthcare blockchain to securely store and share patient health records with other healthcare providers, allowing for better coordination of care and improved outcomes for patients. By using a private blockchain, the hospital can ensure that sensitive patient information is only shared among authorized parties, while also improving the efficiency and accuracy of its data management processes.

  • Consensus: In the world of cryptocurrency, the meaning of consensus refers to the process by which all participants in a network agree on the current state of the system.

  • Validator: The meaning of validator refers to an agent in a blockchain network that is responsible for verifying the validity of transactions, maintaining the ledger, and ensuring consensus among users.