What is a Public Blockchain?

A public blockchain is a decentralized and distributed ledger that is open to anyone who wants to participate as a node in the network. It operates on a consensus mechanism, such as Proof-of-Work (PoW) or Proof-of-Stake (PoS), and allows for the creation, storage, and transfer of assets, such as cryptocurrencies, without the need for a central authority.

The most notable example of a public blockchain is the Bitcoin network, which was the first decentralized cryptocurrency and remains one of the largest and most well-known public blockchains in the world. Other examples of public blockchains include Ethereum, Ripple, and Litecoin.

The key characteristic of a public blockchain is that it is open and accessible to anyone, regardless of their location, nationality, or identity. Anyone can participate in the network as a node, and anyone can validate transactions and participate in the consensus mechanism. This makes public blockchains highly transparent, secure, and resistant to censorship and interference.

Another important characteristic of public blockchains is that they operate on a decentralized and distributed ledger, meaning that data is stored and processed on many nodes in the network, rather than on a single central server. This makes public blockchains much more resilient to attacks and failures, as there is no single point of failure that can be targeted or exploited.

Simplified Example

Imagine a park where anyone can come and play. The park has swings, a slide, and a sandbox where kids can build castles and have fun. Anyone can come and go as they please, and they can play on any of the toys and have a great time.

In the same way, a public blockchain is like a park that anyone can come and participate in. Just like how anyone can come to the park and play on the swings or build in the sandbox, anyone can participate in a public blockchain and help validate transactions or add new blocks of information to the chain.

In this analogy, the park represents the public blockchain, the swings, slide, and sandbox represent the different parts of the blockchain network, and the kids playing in the park represent the participants in the network.

History of the Term "Public Blockchain"

The term "public blockchain" likely originated in the early 2010s alongside the advent of Bitcoin and the subsequent development of blockchain technology. Its emergence was prompted by the need to distinguish between two fundamental types of blockchains: permissionless and permissioned. In the realm of permissionless blockchains, exemplified by Bitcoin and Ethereum, universal participation is encouraged, enabling anyone to engage in the network, contribute to consensus mechanisms, and manipulate data. Conversely, permissioned blockchains, often adopted by businesses, necessitate authorization for network access and participation. The term "public blockchain" gained prominence in discussions and technical documentation related to Bitcoin, serving as a clear distinction from other distributed ledger technologies. As the blockchain landscape expanded, the term became pivotal in articulating the open and decentralized nature characterizing these specific types of blockchain networks.


Bitcoin: Bitcoin is the first and most well-known public blockchain. In a public blockchain, anyone can participate in the network by running a node, validating transactions, and contributing to the consensus process. All transactions on the Bitcoin network are publicly visible on the blockchain, allowing anyone to view and verify the transaction history. The decentralized nature of the Bitcoin network ensures that there is no central authority controlling the flow of funds or dictating the rules of the network.

Ethereum: Ethereum is a public blockchain that allows for the creation and execution of smart contracts. Like Bitcoin, anyone can participate in the Ethereum network by running a node, validating transactions, and contributing to the consensus process. The Ethereum network also supports decentralized applications, which are applications that run on the blockchain and are not controlled by any central authority. The transparency and decentralized nature of the Ethereum network ensure that it is a secure and reliable platform for the deployment of smart contracts and decentralized applications.

Litecoin: Litecoin is a public blockchain that was created as a lighter and faster alternative to Bitcoin. Like Bitcoin and Ethereum, anyone can participate in the Litecoin network by running a node, validating transactions, and contributing to the consensus process. The Litecoin network uses a different proof-of-work algorithm than Bitcoin, which allows for faster confirmation times and lower transaction fees. The transparency and decentralized nature of the Litecoin network ensure that it is a secure and reliable platform for the transfer of funds.

  • Distributed Ledger: A digital database that is maintained and updated by a network of nodes, rather than being controlled by a single central authority.

  • Decentralized Network: A network architecture that operates without a central authority or centralized point of control.