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# What is Zero Knowledge Proof?

Zero Knowledge Proof (ZKP) is a cryptographic concept that enables one party to prove to another that they know a specific piece of information, without revealing the actual information itself. This allows the proving party to demonstrate their possession of information to the verifying party, without actually sharing the information itself. ZKP is used to verify the authenticity of data and ensure privacy and security in various applications, such as digital identity verification, financial transactions, and voting systems.

ZKP works by using complex mathematical algorithms to prove the authenticity of a statement without revealing any additional information. For example, in a digital identity verification scenario, a user can prove that they are over 18 years old without revealing their exact age. The user would provide a ZKP to the verifier, which would demonstrate that the user knows the answer to the question "are you over 18?" without revealing the answer itself. This allows the verifier to confirm the user's age without actually knowing it, preserving the user's privacy. ZKP is a powerful tool for ensuring the privacy and security of sensitive information in a variety of applications.

## Simplified Example

A simple example of Zero Knowledge Proof is Alice trying to prove to Bob that she knows the secret number between 1 and 100, without actually revealing the number itself. Alice can perform some mathematical operations on the secret number to produce a proof, and Bob can verify the proof without learning the actual number. This way, Alice can prove to Bob that she knows the secret without revealing it.

## Who Invented Zero Knowledge Proof?

The term "zero-knowledge proof" was introduced in the 1980s by Shafi Goldwasser, Silvio Micali, and Charles Rackoff in their paper "The Knowledge Complexity of Interactive Proof-Systems." They defined a zero-knowledge proof as a way for one party (the prover) to convince another party (the verifier) that they know a certain piece of information without revealing the information itself.

The concept of zero-knowledge proofs has a long and rich history in cryptography, dating back to the work of Aristotle and Euclid. However, it was not until the 1980s that Goldwasser, Micali, and Rackoff formalized the concept and developed the first practical zero-knowledge proofs.

## Examples

Digital Identity Verification: Zero Knowledge Proofs can be used to verify a user's identity, such as age or address, without requiring the user to reveal sensitive information like their full name, date of birth, or Social Security Number.

Financial Transactions: ZKP can be used in financial transactions to ensure the privacy and security of sensitive information like account numbers, transaction amounts, and personal information.

Voting Systems: ZKP can be used to ensure the privacy and security of individual votes in electronic voting systems. This allows voters to verify that their vote has been counted correctly without revealing how they voted, ensuring the privacy and confidentiality of the voting process.

• Zk-SNARKs: A type of zero knowledge proof that enables one party to prove to another that they have knowledge of a certain piece of information without revealing the information itself.

• Zero Knowledge Rollup: A type of blockchain scaling solution that combines the security of the underlying blockchain with the scalability of off-chain transactions.