What is Ransomware?

Ransomware is a type of malicious software that encrypts the files on a computer or network and demands payment from the victim in exchange for a decryption key. The primary goal of ransomware attacks is to make the victims' files inaccessible until a ransom is paid, typically in the form of cryptocurrency.

Ransomware attacks are usually delivered through email attachments or links that, when clicked, install the malware on the victim's device. The malware then scans the device and encrypts the files, making them inaccessible to the user. The attackers then leave a ransom note on the victim's computer screen, demanding payment in exchange for the decryption key.

One of the key challenges with ransomware is that there is no guarantee that the attackers will provide the decryption key even if the ransom is paid. In some cases, victims have paid the ransom only to find that the attackers did not provide a working decryption key. This is why it is essential to have a robust backup strategy in place to minimize the risk of losing important data in the event of a ransomware attack.

To prevent ransomware attacks, it is important to follow basic cybersecurity practices, such as keeping software up to date, using strong passwords, and avoiding suspicious emails and attachments. Additionally, using anti-malware software and regularly backing up important data can help protect against ransomware attacks.

In the event of a ransomware attack, it is important not to pay the ransom as this only encourages the attackers and funds their criminal activities. Instead, victims should disconnect their device from the network and contact law enforcement for assistance.

Simplified Example

Ransomware can be explained to a child as a mean trick that makes your toys or favorite things disappear and only gives them back if you pay up. Imagine you're playing with your toys, and you have a special toy box where you keep all of your favorite things. One day, you go to your toy box and all of your toys are gone! You search everywhere for them, but they're nowhere to be found. Then, you get a message from someone saying that they have taken your toys, and they won't give them back unless you give them some of your candy or money. That's kind of like ransomware. Ransomware is a type of computer virus that can take control of your files and make them disappear, just like how the person took your toys. The people behind the ransomware then ask for payment, like money or Bitcoin, in order to give you back access to your files. It's like they're holding your toys ransom until you pay up!

History of the Term "Ransomware"

In the pre-1989 era, the notion of data piracy and extortion existed, but the advent of the digital realm brought new possibilities. The rise of computer viruses and malware laid the groundwork for targeting specific files and systems. The first spark occurred in 1989 with the emergence of the AIDS Trojan/PS Cyborg virus, a floppy disk-borne malware encrypting files and demanding a $189 ransom sent via postal mail, marking the inaugural documented instance of ransomware. Media coverage, including reports by the New York Times on the "AIDS Trojan," raised awareness and initiated discussions about digital extortion. The term's shaping in the 1990s involved security experts like Eugene Kaspersky and John McAfee using phrases such as "extortion virus" or "crypto-extortion." Concurrently, online forums and newsgroups contributed to the term's evolution, with variations like "ransom virus," "file-encrypting virus," and even "PC Cyborg" circulating. The tipping point in the late 1990s witnessed a surge in ransomware attacks targeting businesses and individuals, leading to more frequent usage of the term "ransomware" in the media. Its formal recognition by security organizations and conferences reflected its growing impact and distinct characteristics in the cybersecurity vocabulary.


WannaCry Ransomware Attack: WannaCry was a ransomware attack that affected hundreds of thousands of computers in over 150 countries in May of 2017. The attack exploited a vulnerability in Microsoft Windows operating systems, and once a computer was infected, the ransomware encrypted the user's files and demanded payment in exchange for the decryption key. The attackers demanded payment in the form of Bitcoin, and many victims were forced to pay the ransom in order to regain access to their important files. The WannaCry attack caused widespread disruption and was estimated to have cost victims hundreds of millions of dollars.

Ryuk Ransomware Attack: Ryuk is a type of ransomware that was first identified in August 2019. The attackers behind Ryuk target large organizations and corporations, and typically use a combination of social engineering and phishing tactics to gain access to a company's network. Once the attackers have gained access, they install the Ryuk ransomware, which encrypts the company's files and demands a large ransom in exchange for the decryption key. Ryuk attacks have resulted in significant disruptions and financial losses for the companies affected, and the attackers behind the attacks are still active and targeting new victims.

REvil Ransomware Attack: REvil is another type of ransomware that has been used in several high-profile attacks, including against the travel company Marriott International. The attackers behind REvil typically target large organizations and demand large ransoms in exchange for the decryption of the company's files. In the case of Marriott International, the attackers demanded a ransom of $10 million in exchange for the decryption key. The impact of a REvil attack can be significant, as it can result in the loss of important data and files, as well as significant financial losses for the affected organization.

  • Ryuk Ransomware: A type of malware that encrypts the files on a victim's computer and demands payment in exchange for the decryption key.

  • WannaCry Ransomware: A type of malicious software that encrypts a user’s files, making them inaccessible unless a ransom is paid.