What is a Fundamental Analysis (FA)?

Fundamental Analysis is an investment strategy used to analyze the financial health of a company. It involves studying a company’s financial statements (income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow), as well as other public information such as news releases, geographic location, industry trends, and more. By understanding these factors, investors can make informed decisions about whether or not they want to buy or sell stocks in that particular company. Additionally, fundamental analysis provides valuable insight into how a stock may perform in the future based on current market conditions. Fundamental analysts look at both quantitative data (such as earnings per share) and qualitative data (such as management team experience) when determining if an investment opportunity is attractive enough to consider. Ultimately, fundamental analysis helps investors assess the intrinsic value of stocks before making an investment decision.

By using fundamental analysis, investors can gain a better understanding of how the stock market works, gain insights into which investments are likely to outperform in the future, and make informed decisions about their portfolios. Additionally, fundamental analysis can provide investors with a long-term perspective on investment performance rather than relying solely on short-term price movements. By viewing the strategy from multiple angles and analyzing all relevant information, an investor is more likely to identify profitable opportunities while avoiding overvalued or undervalued stocks. Ultimately, Fundamental Analysis helps investors identify potential investment opportunities that may be overlooked by other investors and allows them to maximize returns while minimizing risks.   By incorporating fundamental analysis into their investment strategy, investors can make well-informed decisions that are likely to yield higher returns in the long run.

Simplified Example

Fundamental analysis for an asset is like inspecting a toy before buying it. Imagine you are at a toy store and you want to buy a toy. Before you buy it, you would want to know if the toy is good and worth the price. So you would inspect the toy, check if it's in good condition, if it's made of high quality materials, if it has all its parts, and if it's fun to play with. This is what fundamental analysis is like. It's when you look at an asset, like a stock, and check if it's a good investment by looking at things like the company's financial health, the industry it's in, and the overall economy. This way you can decide if it's a good investment or not, just like you decide if a toy is worth buying or not.

History of the Term "Fundamental Analysis"

The term "Fundamental Analysis" (FA) has roots in the financial world dating back centuries, finding its origins in the early practices of accounting and financial reporting. However, it gained widespread recognition and formalization through the influential work of Benjamin Graham and David Dodd, renowned economists and investment experts who authored the seminal book "Security Analysis" in 1934. Graham and Dodd significantly contributed to the development of modern FA, presenting it as a method for assessing a company's intrinsic value through the examination of its financial statements, management, and industry conditions. This analytical approach stands in contrast to technical analysis (TA), which concentrates on scrutinizing price and volume data to identify market trends and patterns.


Macroeconomic Analysis: This type of fundamental analysis focuses on economic, political, and social factors that can impact the performance of a security. Examples include analyzing interest rates, inflation levels, unemployment data, gross domestic product (GDP) growth, and government policies.

Industry Analysis: A second type of fundamental analysis evaluates the industry in which a company operates as well as its position within it. This includes assessing competition, price trends for goods/services produced by the company and overall industry trends.

Company Analysis: The third type of fundamental analysis focuses on the specific company itself rather than broader market forces or its industry segment. These analyses involve researching financial statements to assess profitability and balance sheets to evaluate debt levels. Investors also look at management and corporate governance, the company’s history of profitability and other qualitative factors. It is important to remember that fundamental analysis can be used for all types of securities, including stocks, bonds, mutual funds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), and commodities. By understanding these three key areas of analysis, investors can better assess a security’s potential performance.

  • Intrinsic Value: A term used in finance to refer to the underlying value of an asset, separate from its market price.

  • Market: A place or system where buyers and sellers come together to exchange goods, services, or financial instruments.